Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 31 Jan, 2015: Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6200 Gram Black 5600 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 10800 Moong Pulse 12000 Mash 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 12600 Masoor Pulse(local) 14800 Millet 3200 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 12000 Ginger(China) 11000 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2600 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8200 Cauliflower 1850 Peas 3400 Turnip 950 Radish 1150 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 7200 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 6400 Kinnow (100Pcs) 410 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16200 Musambi(100Pcs) 92 Cabbage 2200 Jaggery (گڑ) 7200 Mash Pulse(local) 14600 Gram White(Importedl) 7800 Ginger (Thai) 10500 Cucumber (Kheera) 4500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 6000 ¡ ArifWala Paddy Basmati 3813 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 14000 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 4750 Brinjal 3400 Cauliflower 2750 Peas 3400 Turnip 1350 Radish 900 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 8500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3250 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19000 Banola Cake 3259 Cabbage 2100 Cucumber (Kheera) 6250 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6250 Lemon (China) 5250 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 5198 Potato Fresh 1575 Onion 933 Garlic (China) 11550 Tomato 3500 Spinach 500 Brinjal 2830 Cauliflower 1488 Peas 2950 Turnip 1225 Radish 1088 Carrot 1288 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10400 Banana(DOZENS) 36 Guava 2488 Kinnow (100Pcs) 555 Cabbage 1488 Ginger (Thai) 10170 Cucumber (Kheera) 4538 Green Chilli 5538 Lemon (China) 5608 ¡ LalaMusa Wheat 3300 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7600 Sugar 5200 Gram White(local) 6000 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 14000 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13400 Maize 2200 Millet 2500 Potato Fresh 2000 Potato Store 1650 Onion 1850 Garlic (China) 12650 Tomato 4200 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 3200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20000 Cauliflower 2550 Peas 3450 Turnip 1700 Radish 1100 Carrot 2550 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 5000 Orange(100Pcs) 360 Kinnow (100Pcs) 350 Banola 2800 Banola Cake 2950 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10000 Musambi(100Pcs) 745 Cabbage 2390 Jaggery (گڑ) 6400 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Ginger (Thai) 12750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10700 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4050 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Lemon (Other) 4000 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5750 ¡ Gojra Potato Fresh 1553 Onion 1510 Garlic (China) 11662 Tomato 4025 Spinach 620 Cauliflower 1695 Peas 3358 Turnip 1105 Radish 1105 Carrot 1553 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11657 Apple (Golden) 6495 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 2458 Kinnow (100Pcs) 460 Cabbage 2458 Ginger (Thai) 9863 Green Chilli 4923 Lemon (China) 3360 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 1600 Onion 1600 Garlic (China) 13000 Tomato 4500 Spinach 450 Brinjal 3250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 12750 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 2750 Turnip 1350 Radish 500 Carrot 1750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 6750 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Orange(100Pcs) 610 Kinnow (100Pcs) 430 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Musambi(100Pcs) 715 Cabbage 1850 Cucumber (Kheera) 3550 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5500 Lemon (China) 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4250 ¡ RajanPur Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 1100 Tomato 3000 Brinjal 1800 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 3800 Turnip 1300 Radish 500 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11000 Apple (Golden) 5950 Guava 4650 Cabbage 1500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7000 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7200 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 5450 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong Pulse 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 14100 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 13250 Tomato 5150 Spinach 1050 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Cauliflower 1600 Peas 3100 Turnip 1000 Radish 550 Carrot 1250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 6400 Banana(DOZENS) 34 Guava 4150 Kinnow (100Pcs) 330 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 5900 Pomegranate(Badana) 20250 Cabbage 2000 Mash Pulse(local) 14100 Ginger (Thai) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6150 Green Chilli 6150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7150 Lemon (China) 1400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Organic vs. conventional food - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Organic vs. conventional food

January 12, 2013

For most people willing to pay a premium for organic food, the reason is some nebulous combination of health, environment and flavor. If pressed, however, few could point to evidence that organic food is better than conventionally grown products on any of those counts.

This month, a new piece of evidence emerged on this issue, and the news was bad for organic agriculture. A report out of Stanford University found no consistent differences in nutritional content between organic and conventionally grown crops. So how about the other reasons for buying organic? Let’s start by looking at the environmental differences between conventional and organic farming.

Comparing the environmental impacts of two products involves many considerations: chemical runoff into our water supply, soil health and greenhouse gas emissions, to name just a few. Since there isn’t enough space to consider all of those in a single article, we’ll take one environmental consideration at a time in an occasional series.

Land use is a reasonable place to begin. Part of a product’s environmental impact is the amount of space required to produce it. After all, if a plot of land weren’t required to produce corn or avocados or pigs, it could be used for environmentally helpful purposes such as habitats for wild animals or carbon-eating plants or land for solar panels and wind farms.

Food production requires an incredible amount of land. By some estimates, croplands and pastures now occupy 40 percent of Earth’s land surface. Producing more food with less land could be a major win for the environment.

In May, researchers at Canada’s McGill University and the University of Minnesota published an article in the journal Nature comparing the productivity of organic and conventional farms.

This particular study is known as a meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis, a researcher compiles all of the studies on a particular issue, usually discarding those that are methodologically unsound, then finds a statistical method with which to combine them. Ultimately, a meta-analysis turns a series of smaller studies into a large study, which, if done right, carries more persuasive heft and can bring real clarity to disputed scientific issues.

In their meta-analysis, McGill’s Verena Seufert and her colleagues examined 66 previous studies. Their results are bound to disappoint organic advocates. Overall, they found that organic methods produce 25 percent less food than conventional farming on the same land area.

That headline number, however, tells only part of the story, and the details can help guide your decisions as a consumer.

For some crops, organic methods are nearly as productive as conventional farming. Organic fruit farms, for example, finished in a statistical dead heat with conventional acreage. The yield of organically grown tomatoes (considered separately from other fruits) was statistically indistinguishable from conventional tomatoes as well, as were organic oilseeds such as sunflower and canola. Organic legumes, such as peas and beans, also performed well.

Conventional methods soundly outpaced organic among grains and vegetables. Among wheat, corn and other cereals, organic farms were 26 percent less productive, while organic vegetable growers turned out 33 percent less food per acre than those who used pesticides, herbicides and synthetic fertilizer.

If you’re wondering why organic productivity might be as good as non-organic for some crops but not for others, it has a lot to do with nitrogen. Organic farmers can’t load up their fields with synthetic fertilizer, so crops that use nitrogen more efficiently, such as legumes, perform better in an organic system than those that rely on heavy infusions of nitrogen.

Relative productivity of organic and conventional fields can also depend on more obscure factors, such as the pH of soil. Organic crops perform well when the soil’s pH stays inside a certain range, but they do poorly in high-alkaline or high-acidity environments. Unfortunately, consumers standing in front of a bell pepper display would have a hard time figuring out the acidity of the soil that produced them, so you might as well forget about those details.

Meta-analyses are not perfect, and organic yields were found to be better in a study that predated Seufert et al. Those results, however, came in for serious criticism, and the more recent meta-analysis seems to have solved some of the methodological problems.

None of this is to say you should stop buying organic corn, wheat or vegetables. Overall organic yields in Seufert’s meta-analysis were depressed somewhat by farmers who weren’t applying the right nutrients in the right quantities at the right time. Farmers who manage their crops more expertly come quite close to matching conventional yields.

Over time, it’s entirely plausible that increased demand for organic food will improve techniques further, with investment funding research on best practices and improving farmer know-how. And, as noted above, land use is just one of many considerations when comparing the environmental impacts of two products. Stay tuned to this space for further looks at the environmental impacts of organic vs. conventional.

Courtesy: The Washington Post

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