Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 19 April, 2015: Multan Wheat 2888 Rice Basmati Super (New) 6063 Rice (IRRI) 3025 Sugar 5405 Gram Black 5438 Gram Pulse 5938 Moong 12625 Moong Pulse 14000 Mash 12625 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14000 Maize 2500 Millet 2913 Sorghum 5125 RapeSeed (Torya) 5063 Potato Fresh 900 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 13000 Tomato 2350 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3000 Tinda 11000 Pumpkin 2200 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 3500 Turnip 700 Radish 900 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 915 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17500 Green Fodder 350 Wheat Straw 563 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 6625 Rice Basmati (385) 4438 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1700 Groundnut 12625 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6138 Gram White(Importedl) 7438 Ginger (Thai) 12000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9725 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12500 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4050 Watermelon 2250 Strawberry 6000 Green Chilli 3500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2750 Lemon (Desi) 14500 Lemon (China) 9000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6188 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2750 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2250 ¡ Vehari Potato Fresh 650 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 12750 Ginger(China) 14750 Tomato 2250 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Tinda 9500 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 1400 Peas 8750 Carrot 3750 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 3750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 950 Green Fodder 345 Wheat Straw 653 Cabbage 1300 Ginger (Thai) 14750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4500 Watermelon 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 13500 Strawberry 10500 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2250 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 6750 ¡ Burewala Potato Fresh 720 Onion 2880 Garlic (China) 12600 Ginger(China) 14400 Tomato 2593 Spinach 5 Brinjal 1913 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7225 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3613 Tinda 10225 Pumpkin 1105 Cauliflower 765 Peas 7225 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 8950 Banana(DOZENS) 47 Guava 2763 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 28000 Green Fodder 263 Wheat Straw 613 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1346 Cabbage 765 Cucumber (Kheera) 1275 Melon 3995 Watermelon 2338 Strawberry 9775 Green Chilli 4888 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2763 Lemon (Desi) 13600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2338 ¡ Mailsi Potato Fresh 660 Onion 2965 Garlic (China) 10745 Ginger(China) 13760 Tomato 2515 Spinach 665 Brinjal 2625 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9970 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3200 Cauliflower 1550 Peas 4490 Turnip 725 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10110 Banana(DOZENS) 46 Guava 1785 Kinnow (100Pcs) 805 Cabbage 1775 Cucumber (Kheera) 1175 Melon 3820 Strawberry 10225 Green Chilli 4925 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4475 Lemon (China) 14575 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2485 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3905 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7000 Sugar 5450 Gram White(local) 5600 Gram Black 5450 Gram Pulse 5900 Moong Pulse 13900 Mash 12500 Potato Fresh 850 Onion 4150 Garlic (China) 13250 Ginger(China) 14250 Tomato 4150 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5350 Cauliflower 950 Peas 9250 Radish 1400 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12750 Apple (Ammre) 5700 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 3400 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 14250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10500 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Pomegranate(Badana) 23250 Cabbage 2000 Mash Pulse(local) 14500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10250 Garlic (Local) 6150 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Melon 3150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7150 Strawberry 10250 Green Chilli 4900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3100 Lemon (China) 6650 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3100 ¡ Summandri Potato Fresh 510 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 13250 Ginger(China) 13500 Tomato 2215 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 1630 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 10250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2650 Pumpkin 1350 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 5200 Apple (Golden) 11250 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Guava 3600 Cabbage 1350 Melon 3750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2105 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2005 ¡ Malakwal Potato Fresh 650 Onion 4000 Garlic (China) 11700 Ginger(China) 14500 Tomato 2750 Spinach 750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4050 Cauliflower 1050 Peas 8250 Radish 625 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 2000 Guava 4750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 650 Cabbage 1000 Ginger (Thai) 11750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1550 Watermelon 1850 Strawberry 11000 Green Chilli 5750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2750 ¡ Shahjewana Potato Fresh 500 Potato Store 700 Onion 3450 Garlic (China) 11800 Ginger(China) 12700 Tomato 2700 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4100 Pumpkin 2700 Cauliflower 2300 Banana(DOZENS) 56 Guava 4500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1100 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 21800 Pomegranate(Badana) 22700 Cabbage 1400 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12400 Green Chilli 5450 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2700 ¡ Qadirpurrawan Potato Fresh 900 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 13000 Tomato 2350 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3000 Tinda 11000 Pumpkin 2750 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 3500 Turnip 700 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 825 Cabbage 900 Ginger (Thai) 12000 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2250 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Leafminer Damage to Plants Leaves - Fighting Back - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Leafminer Damage to Plants Leaves – Fighting Back

Controlling or Avoiding Leafminer Damage

By Marie Iannotti

If your plant leaves look like someone was doodling squiggly lines, you have leaf miners. Leafminers are the larvae of various beetles, flies, moths and sawflies. The adult lays their eggs on the leaf and the larvae burrow into the

leaf and tunnel through it, feeding and leaving a transparent trail of where they've been. If you look closely, you can often see a dark dot at the end of one of the lines. That's the culprit at work.

Not all leafminers zig zag their way through leaves. If you see a similar whitish transparent blotch, this could also be a leaf miner. Blotchy leafminer damage is often mistaken for some type of disease. The photo here is an okra leaf, but many plants are attacked by leafminers. Columbine is almost guaranteed to have a few. The damage is rarely severe enough to kill the plant, but it is unsightly. And in the case of vegetables grown for their leaves, like spinach, chard and beet greens, leafminers can mean a loss of a crop.

Controlling Leafminers

Least Toxic: Insecticides are rarely recommend to control leafminers. Since the damage is mostly cosmetic, the remedy is to remove the affected leaves. This does more than improve the appearance of the plant. It also gets rid of the existing leafminers before they become adults and lay more eggs.

Less Toxic: If you know that a certain plant is susceptible to leafminer every year, you can target the adults before they lay their eggs, by spraying early in the spring with an insecticide such as neem.

Last Resort: There are some systemic Insecticides that are labeled for use on leafminers. Insecticides containing acephate (Orthene) or imidacloprid can be effective if used before damage is severe. No systemics are currently available for non-commercial use on edible plants. Source: About

 

Citrus Leaf Miners - Fighting Back

11/04/2012

This year the citrus leaf miners have gone from being a nuisance to all-out infestation. All summer I watched as each sprig of new growth was mercilessly attacked by the little jerks. They would attack every leaf, causing them to shrivel, curl, and eventually fall off, leaving barren green twigs that should have been covered in lush green foliage. Once the leaves were gone, they even began to attack green wood. I typically don't spray any of my trees at all, preferring to let the good bugs take care of the bad ones. Unfortunately the natural predator of the leaf miner (a parasitoid wasp) doesn't live in Texas, and until an effective predator is introduced their numbers continue to grow unchecked. After some of my very young seedlings were almost completely defoliated, I decided enough was enough. It was time to fight back.

I think the damage was so bad this year for a couple reasons. First of all we really didn't have a winter this year, so there were no hard freezes to knock their populations down. Secondly, it was very wet year, which resulted in lots of new tender growth. So the leaf miners started the season at full strength, and were then treated to a huge supply of food. Of course, I'm sure I see a lot citrus leaf miners because I have a lot of citrus trees. There are also many many citrus trees planted in our neighborhood that experience regular leaf miner damage. So how should I fight them? Even if I had an effective treatment to wipe them out at my house, my trees would soon be re-colonized by invaders from my neighbors' yards. Clearly, this will be war of attrition.

Local expert Yvonne Gibbs says that she just plucks the affected leaves off of her trees, and that she is able to effective control the leaf miners in her yard that way. I wish I could do the same, but it has become so bad that if I plucked off every damaged leaf, the trees would almost be bare! I was talking with Mary Cummings (owner of RCW nursery) after the miracle fruit tasting we had there, and I asked her how she dealt with leaf miners. Their stock of citrus trees looked fantastic and healthy, and I mistakenly assumed that a nursery would have to use some nasty chemicals to keep the trees free of blemishes and looking good for sale. I was wrong! She told me that RCW uses an organic control method they learned from Randy Lemmon, that they use the same products they're selling at the nursery, and that they had not seen any bad leaf miner problems since they had implemented the program.

Randy Lemmon's program consists of alternating sprays of spinosad and neem oil, both of which are organic, every 7-10 days. Once the infestation is under control, he recommends dropping back to spraying every 10-14 days to prevent re-infestation. Spinosad is easy to find at local nurseries and big box stores in low concentrations (0.5% spinosad), but you can also buy one quart Conserve SC (11% spinosad) online for $150. The only containers of neem oil I could find locally were the little 8-ounce containers that cost $10 ($1.25 per ounce). Lucky for me, Mary special ordered a one gallon container of 100% neem oil for me ($0.75 per ounce), which should last over three years. She said she should also special order Conserve SC, but I decided to stick with the Fertilome spray for now.

So beginning September 1st until October 14th, I sprayed the trees every Sunday night, alternating between spinosad and neem oil. My strategy is to try to knock the leaf miners back a bit before we go into winter, spray all the trees with a good dormant oil in January, and then resume the spinosad/neem spray regimen in the spring in order to drive as many out of my yard as possible. I took care to only spray at dusk so as not to harm the bees, and did my best to really cover the trees well, especially the undersides of the leaves. I found that it took approximately 2 gallons to adequately cover everything, including the trees in the greenhouse. I read that spraying neem oil in hot weather could cause in leaf curling, and even though I sprayed at dusk when it had cooled off a bit, I still noticed some leaves with minor curling. Oh well, I haven't noticed any other ill effects from the spraying thus far, and I'd much rather have some slightly curled leaves than leaves damaged by miners. Other than that the results so far have been very encouraging, and I am very optimistic that with continued diligence, my trees can look as good as Mary's and Yvonne's. source: Weebly.

Citrus Leaf Miners - Fighting Back

Clayton Bell

 

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