Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 12, July 2014: Lahore Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Sugar 5390 Gram White(local) 5400 Gram Black 5650 Gram Pulse 5850 Moong 14000 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 12500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Masoor Pulse(local) 13000 Maize 3100 Millet 3200 Sorghum 3900 RapeSeed (Torya) 6500 Potato Fresh 5700 Potato Store 4100 Onion 2700 Garlic (China) 8850 Ginger(China) 20500 Tomato 3600 Spinach 2050 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 22500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2700 Tinda 2950 Pumpkin 1550 Cauliflower 6400 Peas 10800 Turnip 2900 Radish 1550 Carrot 4300 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14750 Apple (Ammre) 8150 Banana(DOZENS) 102 Mango(Chounsa) 9200 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 1185 Mango(Desahri) 8250 Mango(Sindhri) 8150 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 15500 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 9200 Cabbage 4600 Jaggery (گڑ) 6350 Mash Pulse(local) 15000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Garlic (Local) 8150 Cucumber (Kheera) 2200 Melon 4900 Watermelon 1650 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8350 Lychee 21400 Dates (Aseel) 12250 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3500 Lemon (Desi) 9400 Peach 9800 Peach Special 14700 Mango Saharni 5900 Mango Desi 3100 Apricot White 12750 Pomegranate Desi 10200 Grapes Gola 14300 Grapes Sundekhani 21400 Pear 5900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6400 ¡ Vehari Potato Fresh 6950 Potato Store 4500 Onion 2600 Garlic (China) 8550 Tomato 5450 Spinach 850 Brinjal 2850 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1950 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1125 Tinda 3000 Pumpkin 1313 Cauliflower 5950 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 15750 Apple (Ammre) 9450 Banana(DOZENS) 66 Mango(Chounsa) 4800 Mango(Desahri) 4750 Mango(Sindhri) 4850 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 4850 Cabbage 6450 Cucumber (Kheera) 2700 Dates (Aseel) 13950 Green Chilli 5550 Lemon (Desi) 10350 Peach 10700 Peach Special 13850 Plum 12600 Mango Desi 3300 Apricot White 11150 Grapes Gola 11950 Grapes Sundekhani 20500 Pear 4750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2050 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2950 ¡ Burewala Potato Fresh 6660 Potato Store 5175 Onion 2835 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 5185 Spinach 6 Brinjal 3613 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2763 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1403 Tinda 3188 Pumpkin 1105 Cauliflower 7225 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14450 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 5100 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 700 Mango(Desahri) 4675 Mango(Sindhri) 5100 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 4250 Dates (Aseel) 14000 Green Chilli 8500 Lemon (Desi) 9350 Peach 11050 Plum 11900 Apricot White 11900 Pomegranate Desi 7650 Grapes Gola 11900 Grapes Sundekhani 18700 Sweet Musk Melon 4463 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2338 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3188 ¡ Mailsi Wheat 3031 Sugar 5345 Maize 2063 Potato Store 5075 Onion 2550 Garlic (China) 6688 Tomato 5375 Spinach 1323 Brinjal 3193 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2468 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1288 Tinda 3138 Cauliflower 5838 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13175 Banana(DOZENS) 70 Mango(Chounsa) 3698 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 8375 Wheat Straw 668 Mango(Desahri) 3658 Mango(Sindhri) 4150 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 3625 Ginger (Thai) 20500 Watermelon 1350 Mango (Malda) 2593 Dates (Aseel) 13500 Green Chilli 6800 Lemon (Desi) 9425 Peach 11875 Plum 12925 Mango Desi 2130 Apricot Yellow 10275 Apricot White 11350 Pomegranate Desi 5395 Grapes Gola 14900 Grapes Sundekhani 22200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3138 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2925 ¡ Khanpur Rice Basmati Super (New) 12250 Rice (IRRI) 3513 Sugar 5340 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 5550 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong Pulse 14500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13250 Masoor Whole(local) 11050 Masoor Pulse(local) 11250 Potato Store 5130 Onion 2610 Tomato 4400 Spinach 1360 Brinjal 3800 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2960 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 2800 Cauliflower 3400 Banana(DOZENS) 5400 Mango(Chounsa) 4200 Green Fodder 300 Wheat Straw 550 Mango(Desahri) 4720 Mango(Sindhri) 4720 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5400 Cabbage 3000 Mash Pulse(local) 13750 Gram White(Importedl) 9750 Ginger (Thai) 19575 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9900 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12375 Green Chilli 9400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3800 Lemon (Desi) 6600 Peach 11400 Peach Special 15800 Plum 17900 Mango Desi 2200 Apricot White 9800 Pomegranate Desi 15 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Sweet Musk Melon 3000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2160 ¡ ChackJhumra Potato Store 5500 Onion 3500 Garlic (China) 9250 Tomato 5650 Spinach 1600 Brinjal 3600 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1700 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2900 Pumpkin 1500 Cauliflower 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 66 Mango(Chounsa) 6600 Mango(Desahri) 6350 Mango(Sindhri) 5550 Ginger (Thai) 25500 Green Chilli 7650 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2950 Lemon (Desi) 12000 Peach 10100 Plum 13250 Apricot White 12750 Grapes Gola 13250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ Summandri Potato Store 5300 Onion 3300 Tomato 6600 Spinach 2105 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1900 Tinda 3000 Pumpkin 810 Cauliflower 6150 Banana(DOZENS) 88 Mango(Chounsa) 6800 Mango(Desahri) 5150 Garlic (Local) 7350 Green Chilli 8950 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3000 Apricot White 14500 Grapes Gola 12250 Grapes Sundekhani 14500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2105 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2300 ¡ Chiniot Potato Store 5400 Onion 3450 Garlic (China) 9750 Tomato 4600 Spinach 1550 Brinjal 3500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3100 Tinda 4600 Cauliflower 6350 Apple (Ammre) 10500 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 6750 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5750 Cabbage 4300 Ginger (Thai) 21750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 14250 Mango (Malda) 4250 Dates (Aseel) 13250 Green Chilli 11000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3100 Lemon (Desi) 11250 Peach 11750 Mango Saharni 4250 Mango Desi 3750 Apricot White 12250 Grapes Gola 14250 Grapes Sundekhani 19500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3300 ¡ TALAGANG Potato Store 5200 Onion 2700 Garlic (China) 7700 Ginger(China) 22900 Spinach 2000 Brinjal 1400 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1900 Apple (Golden) 9900 Mango(Sindhri) 7100 Cucumber (Kheera) 800 Melon 3000 Watermelon 1300 Green Chilli 4900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1300 Lemon (Desi) 11900 Peach 8200 Plum 12600 Apricot White 12600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2100 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Vaccination in Poultry - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Vaccination in Poultry

Introduction

Disease prevention through vaccination is one of the aspects of bio-security. Disease causing organisms can be classified as smallest to largest - viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All these organisms are susceptible to chemotherapy, except viruses. Bacterial infections are controlled through antibiotics but not much medication is available to fight viral infections thus vaccines are used. Control of viral diseases is dependent on prevention through sanitation and bio-security and by vaccination. Vaccination is no substitute for effective management. Vaccine is effective in reducing clinical disease but exposed birds may still get infected and shed disease organisms. Vaccination before infection occurs in a flock is the best means of protection.

Vaccines are intended to stimulate the immune mechanism of an animal to produce antibodies, which will inactivate pathogens and also produce minimal harm. Vaccine is a protective measure against outbreak of contagious and infectious diseases and plays a major role in preserving productive health of poultry.

Vaccine contain specific biological substances called antigens (Ag).In the bird antigen is recognized as a foreign body and responds by producing specific antibodies (Ab). An ideal virus vaccine is made from a non disease producing highly immunogenic virus causing little reaction and much protection. Vaccine may be live or killed, both types give reaction. (A bacterial vaccine is live or inactivated preparations of bacteria termed bacterins).

Live vaccine:

Live vaccine consists of live micro agents. Live vaccines are viruses or bacteria weakened under controlled laboratory conditions into a safe virus/bacteria strain that can infect the chicken immunity and stimulate immunity without causing severe disease. Live vaccines stimulate the complete immune system including local, cellular and humoral immunity. Protection following vaccination is relatively rapid (few days to a week) depending on properties of particular virus/bacteria. Protection for most of live vaccines does not last for a full breeder cycle and needs regular revaccination.

Live vaccine can be administered by mass applications such as drinking water, spray or aerosol. Live virus vaccines reproduce in the host to increase their number. Most poultry vaccines are a live virus type. They can be given at a younger age than killed vaccine.

Killed or inactivated vaccine:

Killed or inactivated vaccines contain pathogens that have been chemically inactivated with or without a suitable adjuvant so that they will produce immunity, but are unable to cause or transmit the disease. They are killed in such a manner that the part of the organism which injures the bird and allows the pathogen to multiply is destroyed, leaving the immunity stimulating portion of the pathogen intact. The adjuvant causes a mild reaction at injection site attracting cells such as macrophages, which start the immune response. Adjuvant also acts as a slow release formulation stimulating the immune system for extended period of time. Inactivated vaccines do not stimulate complete immune system like live vaccine. They do not induce local immunity and only limited cellular immunity but there is a very strong humoral response (circulating antibodies) and takes up to 6 weeks for this protection to develop. A killed virus product is dependent on the number of antigenic units (virus particles) present in the vaccine dose to stimulate antibody production.

Inactivated vaccine must be administered by injection to each individual bird at the prescribed dose rate is laborious.

Development of competent vaccines is one of the factors for emergence of poultry industry.

Vaccination schedule aids in achieving maximum benefits through maximum protection of flock against disease. Under optimal standards of management & husbandry practices, with no exposure to pathogen a bird is sure to respond effectively to vaccination. In addition to providing all the nutrients through feed, strict bio-security rules following vaccination schedule is must. Small decline in any of the managemental practices can lead to irreversible loss, in form of disease outbreak.

Parent flock is vaccinated in such a way that there are required levels of antibodies of major diseases in chickens. The yolk sac antibody protects the chicks from natural infection but is maintained till defensive organs (thymus, bursa, spleen & bone marrow) are fully functional (21 days of age). Vaccination schedule based on the parent flock vaccinations with slight variation based on season or prevalence of disease in area is helpful.

More doses or higher frequency of vaccine does not have any effect on protection of bird. Only required amount of antigen is utilized to induce the immune system to produce antibodies, additional dosage is either eliminated or deposited hindrance the immune system in recognizing other antigens- immune-suppression develops leading to vaccine failure. Additional quantity/dosage leads to excess expenditure too.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED TO AVOID THEIR INTERFERENCE DURING VACCINATION ARE:

1. High level of passive immunity:

Primary protection comes from immunity passed on by hen to her chicks called maternal immunity and is passive. Maternal antibodies may neutralize vaccine in young chickens, if given at too early stage. When the maternal antibodies disappear the chick is left unprotected, even though it has been vaccinated. Thus it is better to administer the vaccine when the passive immunity is low after about 5 to 7 days.

2. Stress:

Anything which upset physiological and psychological stability of bird is a stressor and reaction of an individual to the stressor is called stress. Stress leads to severe immune-suppression which may result in failure of vaccination. Vaccinate birds only under stress free condition.

3. Inactivation of live vaccine & Spilling of vaccine:

Improper handling during transportation, storage, and at time of administration may lead to failure of vaccines. Vaccine contamination must also be prevented as it can cause serious complications. Live vaccines should always be stored and transported at 2-8oC and never exposed to sunrays. The diluents should be chilled before the reconstitution of vaccines. Live vaccines are disease agents which can cause disease under certain circumstances. If vaccine dribble out it may become a source of disease in birds, thus tip out or left over vaccine must be neutralized with strong disinfectant and empty vials or droppers/containers for be burnt or disinfected to prevent accidental spread to other poultry.

4. Health Status of birds:

Immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine. Vaccination of sick bird can precipitate the incidence of disease and it can also lead to other diseases. Sick birds should therefore, be allowed to recover before vaccination. Immunosuppressive disease cause immune-suppression in birds and the birds will not respond properly to the vaccine resulting in vaccine failure

5. Temperature & Ventilation:

Ambient temperature above 30oC affects the immune system of the birds adversely, so vaccinate birds during cooler period of the day only. Ammonia is produced as breakdown of uric acid (an end product of protein metabolism). Improper ventilation leads to higher concentration of ammonia (NH3) in poultry house due to which there is immune-suppression and failure of vaccination. This ammonia is prevented to accumulate in the poultry house by ensuring proper ventilation.

6. Age, dose and route of vaccine:

Route and dose prescribed by the manufacturer must be followed. Under dosing will not protect the bird adequately. The age of bird at vaccination, proper timing of revaccination affects the level, quality and duration of immunity. Vaccines may be administered:

a) Parentally:

Parental routes are:

Subcutaneous

Intramuscular

Intranasal

Intraocular

b) Orally The vaccine is given orally through drinking water. Following precautions should be taken for proper oral vaccination in birds:

Stop the water supply to the birds for one hour before vaccination in hot weather and two hours in cool weather.

       

Use plain water without any water sanitizer for mixing the vaccine.

Skimmed milk powder should be mixed in water before adding the vaccine to it. It should be mixed @ 3g/Lit of water. This prevents the microbicidal activity of the residual sanitizer and also it stabilizes the microbial antigens. The vaccine should be mixed in such a quantity of water as will be consumed by bird within one hour.

Follow the instructions from the manufacturer.

CARE DURING VACCINATION PROGRAMME:

Buy the vaccine from a reliable well recognized source after checking the expiry of vaccine, as they have limited lifespan within which they must be used.

Vaccines should be stored at a temperature of 2o to 8o degree C. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above 8o C. Same temperature is to be maintained during transporting; a flask with ice cubes or iced water is also suitable for the purpose. In farm storage in lower compartment of refrigerator is suitable.

Vaccination should be carried out during the cooler period of the day which reduces stress in birds. Temperature above 30oC may affect vaccine potency. Mixing of vaccine should not be done in sun, as direct rays will affect the potency and inactivated vaccines. Vaccine should be mixed and kept in shade during distribution period. Don´t use premixed vaccines kept overnight.

As vaccines are vacuum sealed (administered via drinking water) when opened in air draw contaminated air into the container thus such vaccines must be opened under water into which it is to be mixed.

Tape water is mixed with chlorine to kill germs and this water when used can kill inactivated live vaccine. All sanitizers in water should be avoided during vaccination, thus avoid such water or treat before use. Antibiotic treatment should be stopped three days before and after vaccination. Live virus vaccine are readily destroyed by sanitizers and chlorine. Water equipments should be free of disinfectant.

For vaccination via drinking water, the amount of water for mixing varies with age, type of bird and climate. Water should be withdrawn 2-3 hours before giving the vaccine for fast consumption of vaccine. Remove water up to 2 hours in hot weather and 2-4 hours in cool weather before administration. All vaccines should be consumed within two hours of mixing; adding skim milk powder prolongs vaccine life. Adequate dosage of vaccine must be provided to flock. As water is withdrawn all birds will come to drink water so it is advisable to distribute the vaccine in more drinkers than needed for normal watering of flock.

Designing and implementing an effective vaccination schedule requires a thorough knowledge of disease, risk situation in a specific area, an understanding about the interaction between chick and vaccine and thorough planning. Decide whether or not to vaccinate against a disease depends on the likelihood that the birds in a flock may be exposed to that specific disease.

As a good breeder hen produces a maximum number of hatching eggs thus there must be least negative impact of disease on egg production. Broiler chicken also relies on breeder hen for maternally derived antibody during first few weeks of life for protection against disease. Thus breeder vaccination needs additional attention. For many viral diseases the breeder is primed with live vaccine followed by an inactivated booster vaccination 4-6 weeks later to provide protection for full production cycle.

GUIDELINE FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION:

Vaccination of poultry younger than 10 days (5-7days) of age cannot be expected to produce uniform or lasting immunity, even in the absence of maternal immunity. Exception is that vaccination for Mareks disease is ordinarily given on the day of hatch.

Guideline for vaccine administration:

Each vaccine is designed for a specific route of administration so use only the recommended route.

Do not vaccinate sick birds (except in outbreak of laryngotracheitis or fowl pox).

Protect vaccines from heat and direct sunlight.

Most vaccines are living, disease producing agents so handle them with care.

Layer Breeder

Bulk of breeder vaccinations are administered in the first 18 weeks (rearing phase)Protection should be at peak level when first hatching eggs are collected and persist up to end of egg production cycle.

To avoid stress to the breeder bird vaccination during lay is kept to an absolute minimum, generally limited to the mass administration of certain live vaccines (ND- Newcastle disease, IB-Infectious bronchitis).

Vaccination at day old or in ovo with suitable MD-Markes Disease vaccine to reduce losses, Sensitive nature of vaccine used requires specific attention to vaccine handling and administration procedures. Vaccination in hatchery is preferred. Even the best MD vaccination does not equate guaranteed freedom.

Vaccine against coccidiosis has been a routine addition to most breeder vaccination schedules. Administered correctly these vaccines induce a predictable immunity to the selected Eimeria strains.

Broiler Breeder

Vaccination of the broiler breeder does not end at protecting the hen and egg production. Breeders immunity has a direct impact on the immunity of the broiler at hatch. Protection to offspring´s/chicks is transferred via yolk called maternally derived antibody (MDA). Chicks hatched in an environment will face the same disease challenges the hen faced in past, but there is balance now a day by keeping hen in one environment, hatching eggs in hatchery and raising broiler chick in different environment away from breeder.

IBD- Infectious Bursal Disease is best example of vaccination in breeders primarily for benefit of broiler.IBD specific MDA protects the broiler from infection during the first two to 3 weeks, after which live IBD vaccines are administered.

Vaccination of the breeder prevents transmission of reovirus via egg and transfers protective levels of reovirus specific MDA to broiler chick. Reovirus is associated with poor growth in broilers.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) and chicken infectious anaemia (CIAV) are both viral pathogens transferred `from breeder to broiler via the egg.

Breeders are vaccinated against salmonella and are less susceptible to salmonella infection; there is also reduced risk of salmonella transmission via the egg. The protection level of MDA transferred from breeder to the broiler protect against infection during 1st weeks post hatch, when broiler is most susceptible to infection

TABLE: 1. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (BROILER)

TABLE: 2. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (LAYERS)

Source Engormix.com

Published: Zarai Media Team

Comments are closed.