Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 19 April, 2015: Multan Wheat 2888 Rice Basmati Super (New) 6063 Rice (IRRI) 3025 Sugar 5405 Gram Black 5438 Gram Pulse 5938 Moong 12625 Moong Pulse 14000 Mash 12625 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14000 Maize 2500 Millet 2913 Sorghum 5125 RapeSeed (Torya) 5063 Potato Fresh 900 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 13000 Tomato 2350 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3000 Tinda 11000 Pumpkin 2200 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 3500 Turnip 700 Radish 900 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 915 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17500 Green Fodder 350 Wheat Straw 563 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 6625 Rice Basmati (385) 4438 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1700 Groundnut 12625 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6138 Gram White(Importedl) 7438 Ginger (Thai) 12000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9725 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12500 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4050 Watermelon 2250 Strawberry 6000 Green Chilli 3500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2750 Lemon (Desi) 14500 Lemon (China) 9000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6188 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2750 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2250 ¡ Vehari Potato Fresh 650 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 12750 Ginger(China) 14750 Tomato 2250 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Tinda 9500 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 1400 Peas 8750 Carrot 3750 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 3750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 950 Green Fodder 345 Wheat Straw 653 Cabbage 1300 Ginger (Thai) 14750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4500 Watermelon 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 13500 Strawberry 10500 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2250 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 6750 ¡ Burewala Potato Fresh 720 Onion 2880 Garlic (China) 12600 Ginger(China) 14400 Tomato 2593 Spinach 5 Brinjal 1913 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7225 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3613 Tinda 10225 Pumpkin 1105 Cauliflower 765 Peas 7225 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 8950 Banana(DOZENS) 47 Guava 2763 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 28000 Green Fodder 263 Wheat Straw 613 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1346 Cabbage 765 Cucumber (Kheera) 1275 Melon 3995 Watermelon 2338 Strawberry 9775 Green Chilli 4888 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2763 Lemon (Desi) 13600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2338 ¡ Mailsi Potato Fresh 660 Onion 2965 Garlic (China) 10745 Ginger(China) 13760 Tomato 2515 Spinach 665 Brinjal 2625 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9970 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3200 Cauliflower 1550 Peas 4490 Turnip 725 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10110 Banana(DOZENS) 46 Guava 1785 Kinnow (100Pcs) 805 Cabbage 1775 Cucumber (Kheera) 1175 Melon 3820 Strawberry 10225 Green Chilli 4925 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4475 Lemon (China) 14575 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2485 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3905 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7000 Sugar 5450 Gram White(local) 5600 Gram Black 5450 Gram Pulse 5900 Moong Pulse 13900 Mash 12500 Potato Fresh 850 Onion 4150 Garlic (China) 13250 Ginger(China) 14250 Tomato 4150 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5350 Cauliflower 950 Peas 9250 Radish 1400 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12750 Apple (Ammre) 5700 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 3400 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 14250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10500 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Pomegranate(Badana) 23250 Cabbage 2000 Mash Pulse(local) 14500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10250 Garlic (Local) 6150 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Melon 3150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7150 Strawberry 10250 Green Chilli 4900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3100 Lemon (China) 6650 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3100 ¡ Summandri Potato Fresh 510 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 13250 Ginger(China) 13500 Tomato 2215 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 1630 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 10250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2650 Pumpkin 1350 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 5200 Apple (Golden) 11250 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Guava 3600 Cabbage 1350 Melon 3750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2105 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2005 ¡ Malakwal Potato Fresh 650 Onion 4000 Garlic (China) 11700 Ginger(China) 14500 Tomato 2750 Spinach 750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4050 Cauliflower 1050 Peas 8250 Radish 625 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 2000 Guava 4750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 650 Cabbage 1000 Ginger (Thai) 11750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1550 Watermelon 1850 Strawberry 11000 Green Chilli 5750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2750 ¡ Shahjewana Potato Fresh 500 Potato Store 700 Onion 3450 Garlic (China) 11800 Ginger(China) 12700 Tomato 2700 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4100 Pumpkin 2700 Cauliflower 2300 Banana(DOZENS) 56 Guava 4500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1100 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 21800 Pomegranate(Badana) 22700 Cabbage 1400 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12400 Green Chilli 5450 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2700 ¡ Qadirpurrawan Potato Fresh 900 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 13000 Tomato 2350 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3000 Tinda 11000 Pumpkin 2750 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 3500 Turnip 700 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 825 Cabbage 900 Ginger (Thai) 12000 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2250 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Vaccination in Poultry - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Vaccination in Poultry

Introduction

Disease prevention through vaccination is one of the aspects of bio-security. Disease causing organisms can be classified as smallest to largest - viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All these organisms are susceptible to chemotherapy, except viruses. Bacterial infections are controlled through antibiotics but not much medication is available to fight viral infections thus vaccines are used. Control of viral diseases is dependent on prevention through sanitation and bio-security and by vaccination. Vaccination is no substitute for effective management. Vaccine is effective in reducing clinical disease but exposed birds may still get infected and shed disease organisms. Vaccination before infection occurs in a flock is the best means of protection.

Vaccines are intended to stimulate the immune mechanism of an animal to produce antibodies, which will inactivate pathogens and also produce minimal harm. Vaccine is a protective measure against outbreak of contagious and infectious diseases and plays a major role in preserving productive health of poultry.

Vaccine contain specific biological substances called antigens (Ag).In the bird antigen is recognized as a foreign body and responds by producing specific antibodies (Ab). An ideal virus vaccine is made from a non disease producing highly immunogenic virus causing little reaction and much protection. Vaccine may be live or killed, both types give reaction. (A bacterial vaccine is live or inactivated preparations of bacteria termed bacterins).

Live vaccine:

Live vaccine consists of live micro agents. Live vaccines are viruses or bacteria weakened under controlled laboratory conditions into a safe virus/bacteria strain that can infect the chicken immunity and stimulate immunity without causing severe disease. Live vaccines stimulate the complete immune system including local, cellular and humoral immunity. Protection following vaccination is relatively rapid (few days to a week) depending on properties of particular virus/bacteria. Protection for most of live vaccines does not last for a full breeder cycle and needs regular revaccination.

Live vaccine can be administered by mass applications such as drinking water, spray or aerosol. Live virus vaccines reproduce in the host to increase their number. Most poultry vaccines are a live virus type. They can be given at a younger age than killed vaccine.

Killed or inactivated vaccine:

Killed or inactivated vaccines contain pathogens that have been chemically inactivated with or without a suitable adjuvant so that they will produce immunity, but are unable to cause or transmit the disease. They are killed in such a manner that the part of the organism which injures the bird and allows the pathogen to multiply is destroyed, leaving the immunity stimulating portion of the pathogen intact. The adjuvant causes a mild reaction at injection site attracting cells such as macrophages, which start the immune response. Adjuvant also acts as a slow release formulation stimulating the immune system for extended period of time. Inactivated vaccines do not stimulate complete immune system like live vaccine. They do not induce local immunity and only limited cellular immunity but there is a very strong humoral response (circulating antibodies) and takes up to 6 weeks for this protection to develop. A killed virus product is dependent on the number of antigenic units (virus particles) present in the vaccine dose to stimulate antibody production.

Inactivated vaccine must be administered by injection to each individual bird at the prescribed dose rate is laborious.

Development of competent vaccines is one of the factors for emergence of poultry industry.

Vaccination schedule aids in achieving maximum benefits through maximum protection of flock against disease. Under optimal standards of management & husbandry practices, with no exposure to pathogen a bird is sure to respond effectively to vaccination. In addition to providing all the nutrients through feed, strict bio-security rules following vaccination schedule is must. Small decline in any of the managemental practices can lead to irreversible loss, in form of disease outbreak.

Parent flock is vaccinated in such a way that there are required levels of antibodies of major diseases in chickens. The yolk sac antibody protects the chicks from natural infection but is maintained till defensive organs (thymus, bursa, spleen & bone marrow) are fully functional (21 days of age). Vaccination schedule based on the parent flock vaccinations with slight variation based on season or prevalence of disease in area is helpful.

More doses or higher frequency of vaccine does not have any effect on protection of bird. Only required amount of antigen is utilized to induce the immune system to produce antibodies, additional dosage is either eliminated or deposited hindrance the immune system in recognizing other antigens- immune-suppression develops leading to vaccine failure. Additional quantity/dosage leads to excess expenditure too.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED TO AVOID THEIR INTERFERENCE DURING VACCINATION ARE:

1. High level of passive immunity:

Primary protection comes from immunity passed on by hen to her chicks called maternal immunity and is passive. Maternal antibodies may neutralize vaccine in young chickens, if given at too early stage. When the maternal antibodies disappear the chick is left unprotected, even though it has been vaccinated. Thus it is better to administer the vaccine when the passive immunity is low after about 5 to 7 days.

2. Stress:

Anything which upset physiological and psychological stability of bird is a stressor and reaction of an individual to the stressor is called stress. Stress leads to severe immune-suppression which may result in failure of vaccination. Vaccinate birds only under stress free condition.

3. Inactivation of live vaccine & Spilling of vaccine:

Improper handling during transportation, storage, and at time of administration may lead to failure of vaccines. Vaccine contamination must also be prevented as it can cause serious complications. Live vaccines should always be stored and transported at 2-8oC and never exposed to sunrays. The diluents should be chilled before the reconstitution of vaccines. Live vaccines are disease agents which can cause disease under certain circumstances. If vaccine dribble out it may become a source of disease in birds, thus tip out or left over vaccine must be neutralized with strong disinfectant and empty vials or droppers/containers for be burnt or disinfected to prevent accidental spread to other poultry.

4. Health Status of birds:

Immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine. Vaccination of sick bird can precipitate the incidence of disease and it can also lead to other diseases. Sick birds should therefore, be allowed to recover before vaccination. Immunosuppressive disease cause immune-suppression in birds and the birds will not respond properly to the vaccine resulting in vaccine failure

5. Temperature & Ventilation:

Ambient temperature above 30oC affects the immune system of the birds adversely, so vaccinate birds during cooler period of the day only. Ammonia is produced as breakdown of uric acid (an end product of protein metabolism). Improper ventilation leads to higher concentration of ammonia (NH3) in poultry house due to which there is immune-suppression and failure of vaccination. This ammonia is prevented to accumulate in the poultry house by ensuring proper ventilation.

6. Age, dose and route of vaccine:

Route and dose prescribed by the manufacturer must be followed. Under dosing will not protect the bird adequately. The age of bird at vaccination, proper timing of revaccination affects the level, quality and duration of immunity. Vaccines may be administered:

a) Parentally:

Parental routes are:

Subcutaneous

Intramuscular

Intranasal

Intraocular

b) Orally The vaccine is given orally through drinking water. Following precautions should be taken for proper oral vaccination in birds:

Stop the water supply to the birds for one hour before vaccination in hot weather and two hours in cool weather.

       

Use plain water without any water sanitizer for mixing the vaccine.

Skimmed milk powder should be mixed in water before adding the vaccine to it. It should be mixed @ 3g/Lit of water. This prevents the microbicidal activity of the residual sanitizer and also it stabilizes the microbial antigens. The vaccine should be mixed in such a quantity of water as will be consumed by bird within one hour.

Follow the instructions from the manufacturer.

CARE DURING VACCINATION PROGRAMME:

Buy the vaccine from a reliable well recognized source after checking the expiry of vaccine, as they have limited lifespan within which they must be used.

Vaccines should be stored at a temperature of 2o to 8o degree C. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above 8o C. Same temperature is to be maintained during transporting; a flask with ice cubes or iced water is also suitable for the purpose. In farm storage in lower compartment of refrigerator is suitable.

Vaccination should be carried out during the cooler period of the day which reduces stress in birds. Temperature above 30oC may affect vaccine potency. Mixing of vaccine should not be done in sun, as direct rays will affect the potency and inactivated vaccines. Vaccine should be mixed and kept in shade during distribution period. Don´t use premixed vaccines kept overnight.

As vaccines are vacuum sealed (administered via drinking water) when opened in air draw contaminated air into the container thus such vaccines must be opened under water into which it is to be mixed.

Tape water is mixed with chlorine to kill germs and this water when used can kill inactivated live vaccine. All sanitizers in water should be avoided during vaccination, thus avoid such water or treat before use. Antibiotic treatment should be stopped three days before and after vaccination. Live virus vaccine are readily destroyed by sanitizers and chlorine. Water equipments should be free of disinfectant.

For vaccination via drinking water, the amount of water for mixing varies with age, type of bird and climate. Water should be withdrawn 2-3 hours before giving the vaccine for fast consumption of vaccine. Remove water up to 2 hours in hot weather and 2-4 hours in cool weather before administration. All vaccines should be consumed within two hours of mixing; adding skim milk powder prolongs vaccine life. Adequate dosage of vaccine must be provided to flock. As water is withdrawn all birds will come to drink water so it is advisable to distribute the vaccine in more drinkers than needed for normal watering of flock.

Designing and implementing an effective vaccination schedule requires a thorough knowledge of disease, risk situation in a specific area, an understanding about the interaction between chick and vaccine and thorough planning. Decide whether or not to vaccinate against a disease depends on the likelihood that the birds in a flock may be exposed to that specific disease.

As a good breeder hen produces a maximum number of hatching eggs thus there must be least negative impact of disease on egg production. Broiler chicken also relies on breeder hen for maternally derived antibody during first few weeks of life for protection against disease. Thus breeder vaccination needs additional attention. For many viral diseases the breeder is primed with live vaccine followed by an inactivated booster vaccination 4-6 weeks later to provide protection for full production cycle.

GUIDELINE FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION:

Vaccination of poultry younger than 10 days (5-7days) of age cannot be expected to produce uniform or lasting immunity, even in the absence of maternal immunity. Exception is that vaccination for Mareks disease is ordinarily given on the day of hatch.

Guideline for vaccine administration:

Each vaccine is designed for a specific route of administration so use only the recommended route.

Do not vaccinate sick birds (except in outbreak of laryngotracheitis or fowl pox).

Protect vaccines from heat and direct sunlight.

Most vaccines are living, disease producing agents so handle them with care.

Layer Breeder

Bulk of breeder vaccinations are administered in the first 18 weeks (rearing phase)Protection should be at peak level when first hatching eggs are collected and persist up to end of egg production cycle.

To avoid stress to the breeder bird vaccination during lay is kept to an absolute minimum, generally limited to the mass administration of certain live vaccines (ND- Newcastle disease, IB-Infectious bronchitis).

Vaccination at day old or in ovo with suitable MD-Markes Disease vaccine to reduce losses, Sensitive nature of vaccine used requires specific attention to vaccine handling and administration procedures. Vaccination in hatchery is preferred. Even the best MD vaccination does not equate guaranteed freedom.

Vaccine against coccidiosis has been a routine addition to most breeder vaccination schedules. Administered correctly these vaccines induce a predictable immunity to the selected Eimeria strains.

Broiler Breeder

Vaccination of the broiler breeder does not end at protecting the hen and egg production. Breeders immunity has a direct impact on the immunity of the broiler at hatch. Protection to offspring´s/chicks is transferred via yolk called maternally derived antibody (MDA). Chicks hatched in an environment will face the same disease challenges the hen faced in past, but there is balance now a day by keeping hen in one environment, hatching eggs in hatchery and raising broiler chick in different environment away from breeder.

IBD- Infectious Bursal Disease is best example of vaccination in breeders primarily for benefit of broiler.IBD specific MDA protects the broiler from infection during the first two to 3 weeks, after which live IBD vaccines are administered.

Vaccination of the breeder prevents transmission of reovirus via egg and transfers protective levels of reovirus specific MDA to broiler chick. Reovirus is associated with poor growth in broilers.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) and chicken infectious anaemia (CIAV) are both viral pathogens transferred `from breeder to broiler via the egg.

Breeders are vaccinated against salmonella and are less susceptible to salmonella infection; there is also reduced risk of salmonella transmission via the egg. The protection level of MDA transferred from breeder to the broiler protect against infection during 1st weeks post hatch, when broiler is most susceptible to infection

TABLE: 1. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (BROILER)

TABLE: 2. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (LAYERS)

Source Engormix.com

Published: Zarai Media Team

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