Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 27, July 2014: Okara Wheat 3050 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11900 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5450 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 5550 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong 13450 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 10750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13100 Maize 2138 Millet 2500 Sorghum 6250 Potato Fresh 6250 Potato Store 4450 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 3900 Spinach 900 Brinjal 900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1250 Tinda 3400 Cauliflower 4250 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Banola Cake 3925 Green Fodder 340 Wheat Straw 663 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6150 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5250 Cabbage 4750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 20000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9450 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11450 Garlic (Local) 7750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 12250 Green Chilli 3400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3800 Lemon (Desi) 8250 Peach Special 9250 Plum 14750 Mango Desi 3000 Apricot White 12750 Grapes Gola 10950 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1050 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1100 ¡ Rawalpindi Wheat 3125 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 4250 Sugar 5570 Gram White(local) 6500 Gram Black 5400 Gram Pulse 6650 Moong 14500 Moong Pulse 16000 Mash 11750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Maize 2850 Millet 2650 Sorghum 4100 RapeSeed (Torya) 6625 Potato Store 6000 Onion 4000 Garlic (China) 9800 Ginger(China) 20100 Tomato 6650 Spinach 1900 Brinjal 2000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 3650 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5500 Peas 8900 Turnip 3000 Carrot 3700 Banana(DOZENS) 109 Grapes (Other) 7600 Mango(Chounsa) 6300 Mango(Desahri) 5000 Mango(Sindhri) 7400 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 15250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6550 Cabbage 4800 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Garlic (Local) 9800 Cucumber (Kheera) 4300 Melon 2400 Watermelon 2400 Mango (Malda) 4150 Lychee 15400 Dates (Aseel) 9500 Apple (Gatcha) 12800 Green Chilli 3700 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5100 Lemon (Desi) 10700 Peach 8700 Peach Special 13000 Plum 10000 Mango Desi 3700 Apricot White 10850 Grapes Gola 7600 Grapes Sundekhani 14150 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6350 Sweet Musk Melon 5000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2900 ¡ Multan Wheat 3338 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9750 Rice (IRRI) 3725 Sugar 5390 Gram Black 5175 Gram Pulse 5600 Moong 9125 Moong Pulse 11375 Mash 9125 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13875 Maize 2250 Millet 2551 RapeSeed (Torya) 6438 Potato Store 4800 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 6000 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3500 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5750 Peas 15000 Carrot 4500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 17000 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 4500 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 788 Mango(Desahri) 4500 Mango(Sindhri) 3250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11200 Rice Basmati (385) 6813 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 4950 Groundnut 6250 Cabbage 3950 Jaggery (گڑ) 5938 Gram White(Importedl) 6563 Ginger (Thai) 19000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9438 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12625 Garlic (Local) 6250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6000 Melon 3750 Green Chilli 3250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Peach 7850 Plum 8900 Mango Desi 2200 Apricot White 10800 Pomegranate Desi 7000 Pear 3950 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5775 Sweet Musk Melon 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1350 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ Bhalwal Potato Store 5750 Onion 4900 Garlic (China) 11750 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 6750 Spinach 3250 Brinjal 1900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2900 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2350 Tinda 8750 Cauliflower 3900 Peas 14750 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 9750 Apple (Gatcha) 9750 Lemon (Other) 14750 Green Chilli 7900 Peach 11500 Plum 21500 Mango Desi 5750 Grapes Sundekhani 27500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4250 ¡ Sahiwal Wheat 3150 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Rice (IRRI) 3900 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 7600 Gram Black 5500 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong Pulse 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12250 Masoor Pulse(local) 13250 Maize 2325 Millet 6350 Sorghum 2600 Potato Fresh 5850 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3175 Garlic (China) 9250 Tomato 4600 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 1125 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 3800 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 5850 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13500 Apple (Ammre) 8350 Banana(DOZENS) 73 Guava 3600 Mango(Chounsa) 6475 Green Fodder 388 Wheat Straw 725 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6650 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13500 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 14600 Apple (Gatcha) 10500 Green Chilli 3600 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5350 Lemon (Desi) 8400 Peach 7250 Peach Special 10500 Plum 13500 Mango Saharni 4850 Apricot White 10750 Grapes Gola 12850 Grapes Sundekhani 17000 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5950 Sweet Musk Melon 4750 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 5400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2025 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Gujrat Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6050 Gram Black 5700 Gram Pulse 5400 Moong 14200 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 13300 Masoor Whole(local) 10000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12250 Millet 3350 Potato Fresh 5750 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10600 Ginger(China) 27000 Tomato 4650 Spinach 1800 Brinjal 1400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 4250 Cauliflower 4000 Peas 11550 Turnip 3750 Radish 3600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12600 Banana(DOZENS) 92 Mango(Chounsa) 8150 Mango(Desahri) 6200 Mango(Sindhri) 9200 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12150 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 8250 Cabbage 5000 Jaggery (گڑ) 7350 Mash Pulse(local) 14800 Gram White(Importedl) 8800 Cucumber (Kheera) 3600 Dates (Aseel) 12550 Apple (Gatcha) 11650 Lemon (Other) 13500 Green Chilli 3800 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Peach Special 10800 Plum 11650 Mango Desi 3150 Apricot White 12550 Grapes Gola 12600 Grapes Sundekhani 23100 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Sweet Musk Melon 4550 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 7200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4500 ¡ PakPattan Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 4000 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong Pulse 15000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12000 Potato Fresh 6500 Potato Store 5000 Onion 3600 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 4700 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3600 Cauliflower 3500 Mango(Chounsa) 6400 Mango(Desahri) 6000 Mango(Sindhri) 6000 Rice Basmati (385) 7400 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Garlic (Local) 6000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1800 Dates (Aseel) 13000 Apple (Gatcha) 13000 Green Chilli 3500 Lemon (China) 9000 Peach 13800 Plum 15500 Mango Desi 2600 Apricot White 13000 Pomegranate Desi 10400 Grapes Gola 8600 Grapes Sundekhani 17200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Sweet Musk Melon 4400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1900 ¡ Mailsi Potato Store 4998 Onion 2798 Garlic (China) 9290 Tomato 6560 Spinach 713 Brinjal 1305 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1768 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1055 Tinda 2120 Cauliflower 5375 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13935 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5550 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5760 Ginger (Thai) 19765 Watermelon 1140 Apple (Gatcha) 8975 Green Chilli 3275 Lemon (Desi) 12145 Peach Special 10588 Mango Desi 2500 Apricot White 10415 Pomegranate Desi 5500 Grapes Gola 11450 Grapes Sundekhani 17650 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1633 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1555 ¡ Chichawatni Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5500 Gram White(local) 7500 Gram Black 6750 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong Pulse 15500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14500 Potato Fresh 7500 Potato Store 4750 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Tinda 4050 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 5750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14500 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Guava 3750 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13000 Rice Basmati (385) 7750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6250 Cabbage 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Garlic (Local) 6750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7500 Dates (Aseel) 18000 Apple (Gatcha) 11500 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5250 Lemon (Desi) 7500 Peach 10500 Plum 12750 Mango Saharni 4750 Apricot White 11000 Pomegranate Desi 6500 Grapes Gola 12500 Grapes Sundekhani 18100 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 Sweet Musk Melon 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2100 ¡ Kamalia Wheat 3281 Paddy Basmati 4750 Maize 1950 Sorghum 6375 Potato Store 4750 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 8500 Tomato 4100 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1800 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 4500 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5500 Ginger (Thai) 20500 Apple (Gatcha) 9000 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3300 Lemon (Desi) 10500 Peach 10500 Plum 11000 Mango Desi 2750 Apricot White 9500 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 14000 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1800 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 2938 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 4650 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11625 Maize 3150 Millet 2900 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 7100 Potato Store 5550 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 8100 Tomato 5750 Spinach 1350 Brinjal 1050 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 1250 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Cabbage 2400 Jaggery (گڑ) 7650 Ginger (Thai) 18375 Cucumber (Kheera) 850 Melon 3250 Green Chilli 3050 Lemon (Desi) 8900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Sweet Musk Melon 3850 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1750 ¡ Mianwali Potato Fresh 5365 Onion 3765 Garlic (China) 10925 Tomato 6465 Spinach 2090 Brinjal 1890 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2390 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2090 Banana(DOZENS) 80 Mango(Chounsa) 6965 Mango(Desahri) 4890 Mango(Sindhri) 7465 Green Chilli 4890 Lemon (Desi) 11700 Peach 5890 Peach Special 8890 Plum 11925 Mango Desi 2715 Apricot White 15400 Pear 7890 Sweet Musk Melon 5890 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2390 ¡ SadiqAbad Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 3600 Sugar 5400 Gram White(local) 7350 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6050 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13600 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 11200 Millet 3000 Potato Store 4230 Onion 2625 Garlic (China) 9450 Ginger(China) 20790 Tomato 3825 Spinach 935 Brinjal 935 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 24000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2465 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1955 Tinda 2635 Pumpkin 1445 Cauliflower 4888 Apple (Golden) 9350 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Mango(Chounsa) 4930 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14500 Rice Basmati (385) 7200 Cabbage 4845 Jaggery (گڑ) 6500 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Melon 2635 Watermelon 2125 Green Chilli 3910 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4165 Lemon (Desi) 7863 Peach 5737 Peach Special 12962 Mango Desi 3610 Apricot Yellow 10625 Grapes Gola 10284 Grapes Sundekhani 15510 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 935 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Summandri Potato Store 4750 Onion 3000 Tomato 6200 Spinach 1300 Brinjal 700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 3350 Pumpkin 1000 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 12500 Turnip 2300 Banana(DOZENS) 95 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Mango(Desahri) 4750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5200 Cabbage 5000 Garlic (Local) 6850 Cucumber (Kheera) 2600 Melon 3000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12500 Green Chilli 3100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Mango Desi 2300 Apricot White 9750 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ TALAGANG Potato Store 5100 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 8500 Ginger(China) 17400 Tomato 4400 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1150 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2100 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 2000 Apple (Golden) 12400 Mango(Sindhri) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 900 Melon 3700 Watermelon 1200 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1150 Lemon (Desi) 9100 Peach 6500 Plum 11300 Apricot White 10800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Vaccination in Poultry - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Vaccination in Poultry

Introduction

Disease prevention through vaccination is one of the aspects of bio-security. Disease causing organisms can be classified as smallest to largest - viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All these organisms are susceptible to chemotherapy, except viruses. Bacterial infections are controlled through antibiotics but not much medication is available to fight viral infections thus vaccines are used. Control of viral diseases is dependent on prevention through sanitation and bio-security and by vaccination. Vaccination is no substitute for effective management. Vaccine is effective in reducing clinical disease but exposed birds may still get infected and shed disease organisms. Vaccination before infection occurs in a flock is the best means of protection.

Vaccines are intended to stimulate the immune mechanism of an animal to produce antibodies, which will inactivate pathogens and also produce minimal harm. Vaccine is a protective measure against outbreak of contagious and infectious diseases and plays a major role in preserving productive health of poultry.

Vaccine contain specific biological substances called antigens (Ag).In the bird antigen is recognized as a foreign body and responds by producing specific antibodies (Ab). An ideal virus vaccine is made from a non disease producing highly immunogenic virus causing little reaction and much protection. Vaccine may be live or killed, both types give reaction. (A bacterial vaccine is live or inactivated preparations of bacteria termed bacterins).

Live vaccine:

Live vaccine consists of live micro agents. Live vaccines are viruses or bacteria weakened under controlled laboratory conditions into a safe virus/bacteria strain that can infect the chicken immunity and stimulate immunity without causing severe disease. Live vaccines stimulate the complete immune system including local, cellular and humoral immunity. Protection following vaccination is relatively rapid (few days to a week) depending on properties of particular virus/bacteria. Protection for most of live vaccines does not last for a full breeder cycle and needs regular revaccination.

Live vaccine can be administered by mass applications such as drinking water, spray or aerosol. Live virus vaccines reproduce in the host to increase their number. Most poultry vaccines are a live virus type. They can be given at a younger age than killed vaccine.

Killed or inactivated vaccine:

Killed or inactivated vaccines contain pathogens that have been chemically inactivated with or without a suitable adjuvant so that they will produce immunity, but are unable to cause or transmit the disease. They are killed in such a manner that the part of the organism which injures the bird and allows the pathogen to multiply is destroyed, leaving the immunity stimulating portion of the pathogen intact. The adjuvant causes a mild reaction at injection site attracting cells such as macrophages, which start the immune response. Adjuvant also acts as a slow release formulation stimulating the immune system for extended period of time. Inactivated vaccines do not stimulate complete immune system like live vaccine. They do not induce local immunity and only limited cellular immunity but there is a very strong humoral response (circulating antibodies) and takes up to 6 weeks for this protection to develop. A killed virus product is dependent on the number of antigenic units (virus particles) present in the vaccine dose to stimulate antibody production.

Inactivated vaccine must be administered by injection to each individual bird at the prescribed dose rate is laborious.

Development of competent vaccines is one of the factors for emergence of poultry industry.

Vaccination schedule aids in achieving maximum benefits through maximum protection of flock against disease. Under optimal standards of management & husbandry practices, with no exposure to pathogen a bird is sure to respond effectively to vaccination. In addition to providing all the nutrients through feed, strict bio-security rules following vaccination schedule is must. Small decline in any of the managemental practices can lead to irreversible loss, in form of disease outbreak.

Parent flock is vaccinated in such a way that there are required levels of antibodies of major diseases in chickens. The yolk sac antibody protects the chicks from natural infection but is maintained till defensive organs (thymus, bursa, spleen & bone marrow) are fully functional (21 days of age). Vaccination schedule based on the parent flock vaccinations with slight variation based on season or prevalence of disease in area is helpful.

More doses or higher frequency of vaccine does not have any effect on protection of bird. Only required amount of antigen is utilized to induce the immune system to produce antibodies, additional dosage is either eliminated or deposited hindrance the immune system in recognizing other antigens- immune-suppression develops leading to vaccine failure. Additional quantity/dosage leads to excess expenditure too.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED TO AVOID THEIR INTERFERENCE DURING VACCINATION ARE:

1. High level of passive immunity:

Primary protection comes from immunity passed on by hen to her chicks called maternal immunity and is passive. Maternal antibodies may neutralize vaccine in young chickens, if given at too early stage. When the maternal antibodies disappear the chick is left unprotected, even though it has been vaccinated. Thus it is better to administer the vaccine when the passive immunity is low after about 5 to 7 days.

2. Stress:

Anything which upset physiological and psychological stability of bird is a stressor and reaction of an individual to the stressor is called stress. Stress leads to severe immune-suppression which may result in failure of vaccination. Vaccinate birds only under stress free condition.

3. Inactivation of live vaccine & Spilling of vaccine:

Improper handling during transportation, storage, and at time of administration may lead to failure of vaccines. Vaccine contamination must also be prevented as it can cause serious complications. Live vaccines should always be stored and transported at 2-8oC and never exposed to sunrays. The diluents should be chilled before the reconstitution of vaccines. Live vaccines are disease agents which can cause disease under certain circumstances. If vaccine dribble out it may become a source of disease in birds, thus tip out or left over vaccine must be neutralized with strong disinfectant and empty vials or droppers/containers for be burnt or disinfected to prevent accidental spread to other poultry.

4. Health Status of birds:

Immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine. Vaccination of sick bird can precipitate the incidence of disease and it can also lead to other diseases. Sick birds should therefore, be allowed to recover before vaccination. Immunosuppressive disease cause immune-suppression in birds and the birds will not respond properly to the vaccine resulting in vaccine failure

5. Temperature & Ventilation:

Ambient temperature above 30oC affects the immune system of the birds adversely, so vaccinate birds during cooler period of the day only. Ammonia is produced as breakdown of uric acid (an end product of protein metabolism). Improper ventilation leads to higher concentration of ammonia (NH3) in poultry house due to which there is immune-suppression and failure of vaccination. This ammonia is prevented to accumulate in the poultry house by ensuring proper ventilation.

6. Age, dose and route of vaccine:

Route and dose prescribed by the manufacturer must be followed. Under dosing will not protect the bird adequately. The age of bird at vaccination, proper timing of revaccination affects the level, quality and duration of immunity. Vaccines may be administered:

a) Parentally:

Parental routes are:

Subcutaneous

Intramuscular

Intranasal

Intraocular

b) Orally The vaccine is given orally through drinking water. Following precautions should be taken for proper oral vaccination in birds:

Stop the water supply to the birds for one hour before vaccination in hot weather and two hours in cool weather.

       

Use plain water without any water sanitizer for mixing the vaccine.

Skimmed milk powder should be mixed in water before adding the vaccine to it. It should be mixed @ 3g/Lit of water. This prevents the microbicidal activity of the residual sanitizer and also it stabilizes the microbial antigens. The vaccine should be mixed in such a quantity of water as will be consumed by bird within one hour.

Follow the instructions from the manufacturer.

CARE DURING VACCINATION PROGRAMME:

Buy the vaccine from a reliable well recognized source after checking the expiry of vaccine, as they have limited lifespan within which they must be used.

Vaccines should be stored at a temperature of 2o to 8o degree C. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above 8o C. Same temperature is to be maintained during transporting; a flask with ice cubes or iced water is also suitable for the purpose. In farm storage in lower compartment of refrigerator is suitable.

Vaccination should be carried out during the cooler period of the day which reduces stress in birds. Temperature above 30oC may affect vaccine potency. Mixing of vaccine should not be done in sun, as direct rays will affect the potency and inactivated vaccines. Vaccine should be mixed and kept in shade during distribution period. Don´t use premixed vaccines kept overnight.

As vaccines are vacuum sealed (administered via drinking water) when opened in air draw contaminated air into the container thus such vaccines must be opened under water into which it is to be mixed.

Tape water is mixed with chlorine to kill germs and this water when used can kill inactivated live vaccine. All sanitizers in water should be avoided during vaccination, thus avoid such water or treat before use. Antibiotic treatment should be stopped three days before and after vaccination. Live virus vaccine are readily destroyed by sanitizers and chlorine. Water equipments should be free of disinfectant.

For vaccination via drinking water, the amount of water for mixing varies with age, type of bird and climate. Water should be withdrawn 2-3 hours before giving the vaccine for fast consumption of vaccine. Remove water up to 2 hours in hot weather and 2-4 hours in cool weather before administration. All vaccines should be consumed within two hours of mixing; adding skim milk powder prolongs vaccine life. Adequate dosage of vaccine must be provided to flock. As water is withdrawn all birds will come to drink water so it is advisable to distribute the vaccine in more drinkers than needed for normal watering of flock.

Designing and implementing an effective vaccination schedule requires a thorough knowledge of disease, risk situation in a specific area, an understanding about the interaction between chick and vaccine and thorough planning. Decide whether or not to vaccinate against a disease depends on the likelihood that the birds in a flock may be exposed to that specific disease.

As a good breeder hen produces a maximum number of hatching eggs thus there must be least negative impact of disease on egg production. Broiler chicken also relies on breeder hen for maternally derived antibody during first few weeks of life for protection against disease. Thus breeder vaccination needs additional attention. For many viral diseases the breeder is primed with live vaccine followed by an inactivated booster vaccination 4-6 weeks later to provide protection for full production cycle.

GUIDELINE FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION:

Vaccination of poultry younger than 10 days (5-7days) of age cannot be expected to produce uniform or lasting immunity, even in the absence of maternal immunity. Exception is that vaccination for Mareks disease is ordinarily given on the day of hatch.

Guideline for vaccine administration:

Each vaccine is designed for a specific route of administration so use only the recommended route.

Do not vaccinate sick birds (except in outbreak of laryngotracheitis or fowl pox).

Protect vaccines from heat and direct sunlight.

Most vaccines are living, disease producing agents so handle them with care.

Layer Breeder

Bulk of breeder vaccinations are administered in the first 18 weeks (rearing phase)Protection should be at peak level when first hatching eggs are collected and persist up to end of egg production cycle.

To avoid stress to the breeder bird vaccination during lay is kept to an absolute minimum, generally limited to the mass administration of certain live vaccines (ND- Newcastle disease, IB-Infectious bronchitis).

Vaccination at day old or in ovo with suitable MD-Markes Disease vaccine to reduce losses, Sensitive nature of vaccine used requires specific attention to vaccine handling and administration procedures. Vaccination in hatchery is preferred. Even the best MD vaccination does not equate guaranteed freedom.

Vaccine against coccidiosis has been a routine addition to most breeder vaccination schedules. Administered correctly these vaccines induce a predictable immunity to the selected Eimeria strains.

Broiler Breeder

Vaccination of the broiler breeder does not end at protecting the hen and egg production. Breeders immunity has a direct impact on the immunity of the broiler at hatch. Protection to offspring´s/chicks is transferred via yolk called maternally derived antibody (MDA). Chicks hatched in an environment will face the same disease challenges the hen faced in past, but there is balance now a day by keeping hen in one environment, hatching eggs in hatchery and raising broiler chick in different environment away from breeder.

IBD- Infectious Bursal Disease is best example of vaccination in breeders primarily for benefit of broiler.IBD specific MDA protects the broiler from infection during the first two to 3 weeks, after which live IBD vaccines are administered.

Vaccination of the breeder prevents transmission of reovirus via egg and transfers protective levels of reovirus specific MDA to broiler chick. Reovirus is associated with poor growth in broilers.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) and chicken infectious anaemia (CIAV) are both viral pathogens transferred `from breeder to broiler via the egg.

Breeders are vaccinated against salmonella and are less susceptible to salmonella infection; there is also reduced risk of salmonella transmission via the egg. The protection level of MDA transferred from breeder to the broiler protect against infection during 1st weeks post hatch, when broiler is most susceptible to infection

TABLE: 1. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (BROILER)

TABLE: 2. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (LAYERS)

Source Engormix.com

Published: Zarai Media Team

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