Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 01 Oct, 2014: Lahore Rice Basmati Super (New) 12300 Sugar 5810 Gram White(local) 5800 Gram Black 6250 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong 11500 Moong Pulse 13600 Mash 14000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Masoor Pulse(local) 14000 Maize 3775 Millet 3550 Sorghum 4050 RapeSeed (Torya) 7000 Potato Fresh 5800 Potato Store 4300 Onion 3100 Garlic (China) 10800 Ginger(China) 26500 Tomato 6100 Spinach 2600 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 24000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5200 Tinda 7250 Cauliflower 2900 Peas 11800 Turnip 4400 Radish 1900 Carrot 5200 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 6750 Apple (Golden) 5100 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 5100 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 13250 Mango(Chounsa) 9400 Green Fodder 388 Wheat Straw 1213 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 16000 Pomegranate(Badana) 17250 Musambi(100Pcs) 815 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1150 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 9200 Cabbage 3700 Jaggery (گڑ) 6200 Mash Pulse(local) 15750 Ginger (Thai) 16750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Garlic (Local) 11400 Cucumber (Kheera) 5500 Watermelon 1350 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 5500 Dates (Aseel) 13650 Apple (Gatcha) 10400 Green Chilli 4800 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6950 Lemon (Desi) 13950 Lemon (China) 7650 Peach 8150 Peach Special 13250 Pomegranate Desi 9800 Grapes Gola 11200 Grapes Sundekhani 19400 Pear 6850 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4900 ¡ Sargodha Wheat 3238 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11125 Sugar 5610 Gram Black 5087 Gram Pulse 5437 Moong 9375 Moong Pulse 11313 Mash 11750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 16750 Masoor Whole(local) 9875 Masoor Pulse(local) 11000 Maize 2438 RapeSeed (Torya) 6625 Potato Fresh 6550 Potato Store 5400 Onion 3375 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 4950 Spinach 2700 Brinjal 2000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4700 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4300 Tinda 5900 Pumpkin 4250 Cauliflower 3650 Turnip 4750 Radish 2950 Carrot 4750 Apple (Golden) 5850 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4250 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 838 Cabbage 3850 Jaggery (گڑ) 6875 Gram White(Importedl) 5625 Apple (Gatcha) 8500 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6400 Peach Special 11500 Grapes Gola 8000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4250 ¡ Rawalpindi Rice Basmati Super (New) 13750 Rice (IRRI) 4150 Sugar 5710 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 6250 Gram Pulse 5900 Moong 12000 Moong Pulse 13000 Mash 13750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15300 Maize 2438 Millet 2813 Sorghum 4750 RapeSeed (Torya) 6875 Potato Fresh 5600 Potato Store 4850 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 9600 Ginger(China) 20700 Tomato 5550 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2450 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 22500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3500 Tinda 4700 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 3300 Peas 9750 Turnip 3300 Radish 1800 Carrot 5050 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 6950 Apple (Golden) 5000 Banana(DOZENS) 70 Guava 4800 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 8250 Grapes (Other) 13450 Mango(Chounsa) 4800 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 16250 Cabbage 2950 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Ginger (Thai) 12600 Masoor Whole (Imported) 11250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12250 Garlic (Local) 10050 Cucumber (Kheera) 4600 Apple (Gatcha) 6950 Green Chilli 4150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4650 Lemon (China) 8450 Peach 5650 Peach Special 9150 Grapes Gola 8250 Grapes Sundekhani 14600 Pear 3700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6450 Sweet Musk Melon 4800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4200 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4150 ¡ Multan Wheat 3350 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9938 Rice (IRRI) 3425 Sugar 5510 Gram Black 5244 Gram Pulse 5688 Moong 9625 Moong Pulse 11375 Mash 11375 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13813 Maize 2313 Millet 2550 RapeSeed (Torya) 6375 Potato Fresh 6200 Potato Store 5100 Onion 2650 Garlic (China) 8650 Tomato 5350 Spinach 1650 Brinjal 1800 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19375 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4050 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4950 Tinda 4300 Pumpkin 1650 Cauliflower 2450 Turnip 2850 Radish 1500 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 6850 Apple (Golden) 4500 Apple (Ammre) 2650 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 6000 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 9000 Mango(Chounsa) 8000 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5625 Banola 2493 Green Fodder 400 Wheat Straw 925 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11300 Rice Basmati (385) 6313 Musambi(100Pcs) 435 Groundnut 7875 Cabbage 3550 Jaggery (گڑ) 6563 Gram White(Importedl) 6650 Ginger (Thai) 15500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9813 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12450 Garlic (Local) 8500 Cucumber (Kheera) 2600 Watermelon 1450 Apple (Gatcha) 7250 Green Chilli 4250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3350 Peach 5750 Pomegranate Desi 10500 Grapes Gola 8650 Grapes Sundekhani 17200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6063 Sweet Musk Melon 4300 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4000 ¡ RahimYarKhan Wheat 3232 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11400 Rice (IRRI) 3900 Sugar 5720 Gram Black 5500 Gram Pulse 5650 Moong 7700 Moong Pulse 14900 Mash 12500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13100 Maize 2100 Millet 3500 Sorghum 3500 Potato Fresh 6525 Potato Store 5130 Onion 2610 Garlic (China) 9630 Ginger(China) 21150 Tomato 5680 Spinach 1520 Brinjal 1680 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16300 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3440 Tinda 4600 Cauliflower 2480 Peas 12200 Carrot 4200 Apple (Golden) 6975 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1200 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 6088 Banola 2612 Green Fodder 475 Wheat Straw 575 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12550 Rice Basmati (385) 6900 Pomegranate(Badana) 11610 Musambi(100Pcs) 3120 Cabbage 2320 Jaggery (گڑ) 5107 Gram White(Importedl) 6300 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9400 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11800 Cucumber (Kheera) 4200 Apple (Gatcha) 11025 Green Chilli 3440 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4600 Lemon (Desi) 8600 Peach 13000 Grapes Gola 13400 Grapes Sundekhani 15800 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2320 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3920 ¡ Sahiwal Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Gram Black 5650 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong Pulse 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Maize 2100 Potato Fresh 6250 Potato Store 4750 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 6250 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3750 Pumpkin 3250 Cauliflower 3250 Carrot 3250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 8500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 4250 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12500 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5995 Green Fodder 335 Wheat Straw 875 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13000 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Cabbage 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 9150 Ginger (Thai) 18500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9650 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 13250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6250 Green Chilli 4250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7500 Lemon (Desi) 7500 Peach 11500 Pomegranate Desi 13500 Grapes Gola 9500 Grapes Sundekhani 23000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6450 Sweet Musk Melon 6500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5250 ¡ Vehari Potato Fresh 7050 Potato Store 4500 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 9850 Tomato 6000 Spinach 1550 Brinjal 2100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4000 Cauliflower 3150 Peas 13400 Radish 2150 Carrot 3150 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10150 Apple (Golden) 6150 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12850 Cabbage 5300 Ginger (Thai) 20100 Cucumber (Kheera) 3500 Apple (Gatcha) 9950 Green Chilli 4100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4050 Lemon (Desi) 14300 Lemon (China) 6700 Peach 8900 Peach Special 11850 Grapes Gola 9450 Grapes Sundekhani 21500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4050 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3150 ¡ Burewala Potato Fresh 5800 Potato Store 4950 Onion 3800 Garlic (China) 9900 Tomato 5525 Spinach 8 Brinjal 2725 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3188 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2975 Cauliflower 2763 Peas 11925 Turnip 2338 Radish 1913 Carrot 3613 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 7650 Apple (Golden) 5950 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 9350 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2763 Cabbage 3188 Ginger (Thai) 19800 Cucumber (Kheera) 5950 Dates (Aseel) 12600 Apple (Gatcha) 7650 Green Chilli 3825 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4675 Peach 9350 Pomegranate Desi 17850 Grapes Gola 10200 Sweet Musk Melon 3825 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3188 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3188 ¡ Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Sugar 5350 Gram White(local) 6800 Gram Black 6450 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 12300 Moong Pulse 13350 Mash 15200 Masoor Whole(local) 14500 Masoor Pulse(local) 16500 Millet 3750 Potato Fresh 5600 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 29000 Tomato 6200 Spinach 2600 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19600 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4500 Tinda 6200 Cauliflower 3000 Peas 12000 Turnip 4000 Radish 2600 Carrot 4000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9000 Apple (Golden) 6200 Banana(DOZENS) 62 Guava 5400 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 9000 Mango(Chounsa) 13500 Cabbage 3600 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Mash Pulse(local) 16250 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Cucumber (Kheera) 3600 Apple (Gatcha) 10800 Green Chilli 4000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6200 Lemon (China) 7200 Peach Special 11700 Grapes Gola 10800 Grapes Sundekhani 18000 Pear 6200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6800 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 7200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4500 ¡ MuzafarGhar Potato Fresh 6600 Potato Store 6000 Onion 2800 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 18000 Tomato 4750 Spinach 2000 Brinjal 1800 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4300 Tinda 4000 Cauliflower 2500 Turnip 3500 Radish 2000 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Guava 3250 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9000 Apple (Gatcha) 12000 Grapes Gola 10000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4100 ¡ BahawalPur Wheat 3275 Rice (IRRI) 3600 Sugar 5500 Gram Black 5400 Gram Pulse 5625 Moong 10750 Moong Pulse 11750 Mash 12250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Maize 2350 Millet 2650 Potato Fresh 7000 Potato Store 5400 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10600 Tomato 4650 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18000 Cauliflower 3600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11500 Apple (Golden) 5400 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10500 Grapes (Other) 14900 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5850 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 525 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Musambi(100Pcs) 3000 Cabbage 4200 Jaggery (گڑ) 7000 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10750 Apple (Gatcha) 11000 Green Chilli 4400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7400 Lemon (China) 7800 Peach Special 15500 Grapes Gola 15000 Grapes Sundekhani 20500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6025 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 7700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4200 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4200 ¡ ArifWala Rice (IRRI) 3725 Paddy Basmati 5000 Paddy (IRRI) 2375 Sugar 5590 Gram White(local) 8500 Gram Black 5750 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong 11250 Moong Pulse 12500 Mash 12250 Masoor Whole(local) 11500 Masoor Pulse(local) 11750 Maize 2375 Millet 2313 RapeSeed (Torya) 6125 Potato Fresh 5750 Potato Store 5250 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 5500 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 12500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Cauliflower 3250 Peas 13000 Carrot 3800 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 6250 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 3750 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 11000 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5875 Banola Cake 2812 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 525 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14500 Rice Basmati (385) 7500 Cabbage 4750 Mash Pulse(local) 15000 Ginger (Thai) 19000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4200 Watermelon 1800 Apple (Gatcha) 11250 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6250 Lemon (China) 10500 Peach 9500 Peach Special 15000 Grapes Gola 9500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6450 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4750 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5250 ¡ PakPattan Rice Basmati Super (New) 13000 Rice (IRRI) 4000 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong Pulse 16000 Masoor Pulse(local) 11500 Potato Fresh 7000 Potato Store 5200 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10000 Tomato 6500 Brinjal 2000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4000 Cauliflower 2800 Peas 13000 Radish 2200 Carrot 3500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 7600 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 3500 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12200 Rice Basmati (385) 7500 Musambi(100Pcs) 4400 Cabbage 4800 Mash Pulse(local) 13500 Garlic (Local) 7300 Cucumber (Kheera) 3500 Apple (Gatcha) 10800 Green Chilli 4800 Peach 15000 Grapes Gola 8600 Grapes Sundekhani 24200 Pear 5200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Sweet Musk Melon 3500 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 6800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4400 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4300 ¡ Lodhran Potato Fresh 6800 Potato Store 4090 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 9737 Tomato 5761 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1161 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Pumpkin 3600 Cauliflower 2045 Peas 15000 Radish 2375 Carrot 3500 Apple (Golden) 6000 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 8636 Cabbage 5000 Ginger (Thai) 21000 Cucumber (Kheera) 5000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11333 Dates (Aseel) 5000 Apple (Gatcha) 6833 Green Chilli 3500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Lemon (Desi) 9500 Lemon (China) 7000 Grapes Gola 10598 Grapes Sundekhani 16923 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3111 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 5495 Potato Fresh 6225 Potato Store 5195 Onion 3038 Garlic (China) 9470 Tomato 5588 Spinach 988 Brinjal 2300 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2900 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2880 Tinda 5513 Cauliflower 2613 Peas 14150 Turnip 3113 Radish 2488 Carrot 3608 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 7590 Apple (Golden) 5850 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Kinnow (100Pcs) 238 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10150 Wheat Straw 735 Musambi(100Pcs) 530 Cabbage 3710 Ginger (Thai) 21750 Apple (Gatcha) 7523 Green Chilli 3625 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5558 Lemon (China) 8713 Grapes Gola 10025 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3105 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3345 ¡ Chichawatni Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5500 Gram White(local) 7500 Gram Black 6250 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong Pulse 14500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13500 Potato Fresh 6000 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 6100 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2850 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Pumpkin 2900 Cauliflower 3000 Peas 13300 Radish 2600 Carrot 3500 Apple (Golden) 6300 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 3750 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 13500 Mango(Chounsa) 6500 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13000 Rice Basmati (385) 7750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6500 Cabbage 7500 Gram White(Importedl) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Apple (Gatcha) 8500 Green Chilli 2250 Lemon (Desi) 11500 Lemon (China) 4750 Peach 12500 Plum 14500 Grapes Gola 14500 Grapes Sundekhani 20000 Pear 4750 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 Sweet Musk Melon 6500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3200 ¡ DunyaPur Potato Fresh 6375 Onion 3375 Tomato 6425 Spinach 1375 Brinjal 2375 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3425 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 6375 Cauliflower 2900 Carrot 3350 Apple (Golden) 8375 Banana(DOZENS) 38 Garlic (Local) 10250 Watermelon 1050 Apple (Gatcha) 10250 Green Chilli 4675 Grapes Gola 10250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3375 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2360 ¡ DGKHAN Wheat 3100 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Rice (IRRI) 3500 Sugar 5500 Gram Black 5100 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong 9750 Moong Pulse 11750 Mash 9250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12750 Maize 2750 Millet 2650 Sorghum 3350 RapeSeed (Torya) 5800 Potato Fresh 5900 Potato Store 4150 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 9500 Ginger(China) 24500 Tomato 3900 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 15500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5250 Cauliflower 3500 Radish 2500 Carrot 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 8500 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10500 Banola 2300 Green Fodder 375 Wheat Straw 725 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 2900 Jaggery (گڑ) 7250 Gram White(Importedl) 6750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10500 Cucumber (Kheera) 5750 Apple (Gatcha) 8500 Green Chilli 3500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4750 Lemon (Desi) 10500 Lemon (China) 8500 Grapes Gola 8500 Grapes Sundekhani 14500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 ¡ MandiBahaudin Wheat 3300 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Paddy Basmati 5250 Sugar 5680 Masoor Whole(local) 8150 Maize 1850 Millet 2550 RapeSeed (Torya) 6900 Potato Fresh 6050 Potato Store 5250 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10050 Ginger(China) 33800 Tomato 6500 Spinach 2500 Brinjal 2000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4250 Cauliflower 2800 Peas 12800 Turnip 3400 Radish 2500 Carrot 3300 Apple (Golden) 6050 Banana(DOZENS) 61 Banola 3050 Banola Cake 3150 Cabbage 3300 Jaggery (گڑ) 6150 Cucumber (Kheera) 7000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7900 Apple (Gatcha) 8800 Green Chilli 6050 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6050 Lemon (China) 7900 Peach Special 10050 Grapes Sundekhani 23800 Pear 4250 Sweet Musk Melon 6050 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3400 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3300 ¡ PirMahal Potato Store 4800 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 8800 Ginger(China) 18600 Tomato 5260 Spinach 960 Brinjal 2700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3375 Cauliflower 2970 Radish 1575 Carrot 3450 Apple (Golden) 4875 Banana(DOZENS) 46 Apple (Gatcha) 8875 Green Chilli 4300 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3800 Lemon (China) 6200 Peach 10300 Grapes Gola 8950 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2900 ¡ jalalpurpirwala Onion 3250 Tomato 6600 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 2750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3900 Green Chilli 3250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2600 ¡ Sialkot Sugar 5800 Gram White(local) 6150 Gram Black 6000 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong 14500 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11850 Potato Fresh 5800 Potato Store 4000 Onion 3100 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 6000 Spinach 2100 Brinjal 3000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4000 Cauliflower 3000 Turnip 3800 Radish 3000 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10000 Green Fodder 275 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12500 Cabbage 4250 Mash Pulse(local) 13250 Ginger (Thai) 15000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9850 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10100 Cucumber (Kheera) 5300 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 5500 Apple (Gatcha) 8250 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6400 Lemon (China) 8300 Grapes Gola 8600 Grapes Sundekhani 16000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 5000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5100 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 3313 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Paddy (IRRI) 4450 Sugar 5750 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 4650 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11625 Maize 3150 Millet 3150 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 7100 Potato Store 5250 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 9750 Tomato 4900 Spinach 2500 Brinjal 1700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3700 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3400 Tinda 1900 Cauliflower 3000 Apple (Golden) 3900 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4200 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Cabbage 4100 Jaggery (گڑ) 7650 Ginger (Thai) 23250 Cucumber (Kheera) 5100 Melon 3250 Green Chilli 4300 Lemon (China) 6200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 ¡ Mianwali Potato Fresh 5365 Onion 3115 Garlic (China) 10875 Tomato 6465 Spinach 2390 Brinjal 2390 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4690 Cauliflower 2890 Peas 13700 Apple (Golden) 8965 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Apple (Gatcha) 5700 Green Chilli 5890 Lemon (Desi) 11650 Grapes Gola 10350 Grapes Sundekhani 19650 Sweet Musk Melon 4890 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5390 ¡ RajanPur Potato Fresh 6400 Potato Store 4900 Onion 2800 Tomato 4800 Brinjal 2200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4500 Tinda 3000 Cauliflower 2300 Carrot 3000 Cabbage 3800 Dates (Aseel) 7500 Apple (Gatcha) 10350 Lemon (Other) 8500 Green Chilli 5500 Grapes Gola 11100 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2200 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3000 ¡ Jhang Potato Store 5400 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 9100 Ginger(China) 16700 Tomato 5500 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5450 Pumpkin 4100 Cauliflower 2700 Peas 12700 Turnip 3600 Radish 900 Carrot 3600 Apple (Golden) 5450 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9100 Apple (Gatcha) 9100 Green Chilli 3600 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4500 Pomegranate Desi 12700 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5450 ¡ Khanpur Rice Basmati Super (New) 12250 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5700 Gram White(local) 6300 Gram Black 5750 Gram Pulse 6450 Moong Pulse 12250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14450 Masoor Whole(local) 10900 Masoor Pulse(local) 11450 Potato Fresh 6525 Potato Store 5130 Onion 2925 Garlic (China) 9675 Tomato 5400 Spinach 400 Brinjal 1520 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5000 Tinda 3800 Cauliflower 1520 Peas 12600 Turnip 2600 Radish 1800 Carrot 3400 Apple (Golden) 6975 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Orange(100Pcs) 300 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 6100 Green Fodder 300 Wheat Straw 550 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14500 Musambi(100Pcs) 433 Cabbage 3400 Mash Pulse(local) 15250 Gram White(Importedl) 8900 Ginger (Thai) 18675 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9950 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9950 Cucumber (Kheera) 2200 Watermelon 1800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11025 Apple (Gatcha) 10125 Green Chilli 3400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4600 Lemon (Desi) 8600 Grapes Gola 9200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6150 Sweet Musk Melon 3400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1400 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice (IRRI) 6900 Sugar 5900 Gram White(local) 5500 Gram Black 5200 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong 11900 Masoor Pulse(local) 12750 Potato Fresh 6700 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3300 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 6650 Spinach 2100 Brinjal 2700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 21250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4100 Cauliflower 3400 Peas 13250 Turnip 4300 Radish 1500 Carrot 4150 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11900 Musambi(100Pcs) 429 Mash Pulse(local) 12100 Ginger (Thai) 20250 Garlic (Local) 12250 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6550 Apple (Gatcha) 6750 Green Chilli 4650 Lemon (Desi) 6150 Grapes Gola 7750 Grapes Sundekhani 15250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5775 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 ¡ Tandlianwala Potato Fresh 5850 Onion 3329 Garlic (China) 9157 Tomato 3860 Brinjal 3470 Banana(DOZENS) 6291 Guava 3337 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7545 Green Chilli 3436 ¡ Sheikhupura Potato Fresh 5500 Potato Store 3900 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 9250 Tomato 6000 Spinach 2500 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4750 Tinda 4750 Pumpkin 4300 Cauliflower 2950 Peas 10600 Turnip 3800 Radish 1900 Carrot 3700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9450 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Guava 4950 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 11500 Musambi(100Pcs) 4750 Cabbage 3850 Ginger (Thai) 17150 Garlic (Local) 9700 Cucumber (Kheera) 2950 Apple (Gatcha) 8750 Green Chilli 4300 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5650 Lemon (China) 4750 Peach 9450 Pomegranate Desi 11250 Grapes Gola 9450 Grapes Sundekhani 17550 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 5650 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5200 ¡ Shorkot Potato Fresh 5400 Onion 3300 Garlic (China) 9100 Ginger(China) 16700 Tomato 6000 Spinach 1825 Brinjal 2250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4000 Cauliflower 3400 Radish 988 Carrot 4000 Apple (Golden) 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Orange(100Pcs) 295 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10900 Apple (Gatcha) 9100 Green Chilli 4600 Lemon (China) 7000 Pomegranate Desi 12700 Grapes Gola 10000 Grapes Sundekhani 18100 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 455 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3400 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3800 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Sugar 5000 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong 13000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12650 Potato Fresh 8100 Potato Store 5900 Onion 3500 Garlic (China) 11500 Tomato 6250 Spinach 1750 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 6000 Tinda 6000 Cauliflower 4100 Peas 16400 Carrot 3750 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Grapes (Other) 10000 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Gram White(Importedl) 10500 Ginger (Thai) 17000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12600 Watermelon 1750 Apple (Gatcha) 5000 Green Chilli 5100 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4100 ¡ TALAGANG Sugar 5790 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 10700 Ginger(China) 19900 Tomato 5800 Spinach 1700 Brinjal 2100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3900 Tinda 3650 Cauliflower 2600 Peas 10200 Turnip 2150 Radish 2100 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9900 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Cucumber (Kheera) 2600 Green Chilli 4100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4900 Lemon (Desi) 6200 Peach 12900 Grapes Gola 8900 Grapes Sundekhani 21900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3600 ¡ Abdulhakim Potato Store 5200 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 10800 Tomato 7300 Spinach 1300 Brinjal 2000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5300 Cauliflower 3000 Peas 12300 Turnip 4500 Radish 2500 Carrot 4500 Apple (Golden) 5300 Banana(DOZENS) 68 Guava 3500 Ginger (Thai) 22300 Garlic (Local) 8800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8800 Apple (Gatcha) 8800 Green Chilli 4000 Grapes Gola 10800 Grapes Sundekhani 17800 ¡ kotmoman Potato Fresh 6750 Potato Store 4950 Onion 3150 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 18000 Tomato 6750 Spinach 4050 Brinjal 3150 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4500 Cauliflower 4500 Peas 14500 Turnip 4500 Radish 3150 Apple (Golden) 5400 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Apple (Gatcha) 9500 Lemon (Other) 13500 Green Chilli 6750 Peach 10000 Grapes Sundekhani 15000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4950 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Vaccination in Poultry - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Vaccination in Poultry

Introduction

Disease prevention through vaccination is one of the aspects of bio-security. Disease causing organisms can be classified as smallest to largest - viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All these organisms are susceptible to chemotherapy, except viruses. Bacterial infections are controlled through antibiotics but not much medication is available to fight viral infections thus vaccines are used. Control of viral diseases is dependent on prevention through sanitation and bio-security and by vaccination. Vaccination is no substitute for effective management. Vaccine is effective in reducing clinical disease but exposed birds may still get infected and shed disease organisms. Vaccination before infection occurs in a flock is the best means of protection.

Vaccines are intended to stimulate the immune mechanism of an animal to produce antibodies, which will inactivate pathogens and also produce minimal harm. Vaccine is a protective measure against outbreak of contagious and infectious diseases and plays a major role in preserving productive health of poultry.

Vaccine contain specific biological substances called antigens (Ag).In the bird antigen is recognized as a foreign body and responds by producing specific antibodies (Ab). An ideal virus vaccine is made from a non disease producing highly immunogenic virus causing little reaction and much protection. Vaccine may be live or killed, both types give reaction. (A bacterial vaccine is live or inactivated preparations of bacteria termed bacterins).

Live vaccine:

Live vaccine consists of live micro agents. Live vaccines are viruses or bacteria weakened under controlled laboratory conditions into a safe virus/bacteria strain that can infect the chicken immunity and stimulate immunity without causing severe disease. Live vaccines stimulate the complete immune system including local, cellular and humoral immunity. Protection following vaccination is relatively rapid (few days to a week) depending on properties of particular virus/bacteria. Protection for most of live vaccines does not last for a full breeder cycle and needs regular revaccination.

Live vaccine can be administered by mass applications such as drinking water, spray or aerosol. Live virus vaccines reproduce in the host to increase their number. Most poultry vaccines are a live virus type. They can be given at a younger age than killed vaccine.

Killed or inactivated vaccine:

Killed or inactivated vaccines contain pathogens that have been chemically inactivated with or without a suitable adjuvant so that they will produce immunity, but are unable to cause or transmit the disease. They are killed in such a manner that the part of the organism which injures the bird and allows the pathogen to multiply is destroyed, leaving the immunity stimulating portion of the pathogen intact. The adjuvant causes a mild reaction at injection site attracting cells such as macrophages, which start the immune response. Adjuvant also acts as a slow release formulation stimulating the immune system for extended period of time. Inactivated vaccines do not stimulate complete immune system like live vaccine. They do not induce local immunity and only limited cellular immunity but there is a very strong humoral response (circulating antibodies) and takes up to 6 weeks for this protection to develop. A killed virus product is dependent on the number of antigenic units (virus particles) present in the vaccine dose to stimulate antibody production.

Inactivated vaccine must be administered by injection to each individual bird at the prescribed dose rate is laborious.

Development of competent vaccines is one of the factors for emergence of poultry industry.

Vaccination schedule aids in achieving maximum benefits through maximum protection of flock against disease. Under optimal standards of management & husbandry practices, with no exposure to pathogen a bird is sure to respond effectively to vaccination. In addition to providing all the nutrients through feed, strict bio-security rules following vaccination schedule is must. Small decline in any of the managemental practices can lead to irreversible loss, in form of disease outbreak.

Parent flock is vaccinated in such a way that there are required levels of antibodies of major diseases in chickens. The yolk sac antibody protects the chicks from natural infection but is maintained till defensive organs (thymus, bursa, spleen & bone marrow) are fully functional (21 days of age). Vaccination schedule based on the parent flock vaccinations with slight variation based on season or prevalence of disease in area is helpful.

More doses or higher frequency of vaccine does not have any effect on protection of bird. Only required amount of antigen is utilized to induce the immune system to produce antibodies, additional dosage is either eliminated or deposited hindrance the immune system in recognizing other antigens- immune-suppression develops leading to vaccine failure. Additional quantity/dosage leads to excess expenditure too.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED TO AVOID THEIR INTERFERENCE DURING VACCINATION ARE:

1. High level of passive immunity:

Primary protection comes from immunity passed on by hen to her chicks called maternal immunity and is passive. Maternal antibodies may neutralize vaccine in young chickens, if given at too early stage. When the maternal antibodies disappear the chick is left unprotected, even though it has been vaccinated. Thus it is better to administer the vaccine when the passive immunity is low after about 5 to 7 days.

2. Stress:

Anything which upset physiological and psychological stability of bird is a stressor and reaction of an individual to the stressor is called stress. Stress leads to severe immune-suppression which may result in failure of vaccination. Vaccinate birds only under stress free condition.

3. Inactivation of live vaccine & Spilling of vaccine:

Improper handling during transportation, storage, and at time of administration may lead to failure of vaccines. Vaccine contamination must also be prevented as it can cause serious complications. Live vaccines should always be stored and transported at 2-8oC and never exposed to sunrays. The diluents should be chilled before the reconstitution of vaccines. Live vaccines are disease agents which can cause disease under certain circumstances. If vaccine dribble out it may become a source of disease in birds, thus tip out or left over vaccine must be neutralized with strong disinfectant and empty vials or droppers/containers for be burnt or disinfected to prevent accidental spread to other poultry.

4. Health Status of birds:

Immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine. Vaccination of sick bird can precipitate the incidence of disease and it can also lead to other diseases. Sick birds should therefore, be allowed to recover before vaccination. Immunosuppressive disease cause immune-suppression in birds and the birds will not respond properly to the vaccine resulting in vaccine failure

5. Temperature & Ventilation:

Ambient temperature above 30oC affects the immune system of the birds adversely, so vaccinate birds during cooler period of the day only. Ammonia is produced as breakdown of uric acid (an end product of protein metabolism). Improper ventilation leads to higher concentration of ammonia (NH3) in poultry house due to which there is immune-suppression and failure of vaccination. This ammonia is prevented to accumulate in the poultry house by ensuring proper ventilation.

6. Age, dose and route of vaccine:

Route and dose prescribed by the manufacturer must be followed. Under dosing will not protect the bird adequately. The age of bird at vaccination, proper timing of revaccination affects the level, quality and duration of immunity. Vaccines may be administered:

a) Parentally:

Parental routes are:

Subcutaneous

Intramuscular

Intranasal

Intraocular

b) Orally The vaccine is given orally through drinking water. Following precautions should be taken for proper oral vaccination in birds:

Stop the water supply to the birds for one hour before vaccination in hot weather and two hours in cool weather.

       

Use plain water without any water sanitizer for mixing the vaccine.

Skimmed milk powder should be mixed in water before adding the vaccine to it. It should be mixed @ 3g/Lit of water. This prevents the microbicidal activity of the residual sanitizer and also it stabilizes the microbial antigens. The vaccine should be mixed in such a quantity of water as will be consumed by bird within one hour.

Follow the instructions from the manufacturer.

CARE DURING VACCINATION PROGRAMME:

Buy the vaccine from a reliable well recognized source after checking the expiry of vaccine, as they have limited lifespan within which they must be used.

Vaccines should be stored at a temperature of 2o to 8o degree C. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above 8o C. Same temperature is to be maintained during transporting; a flask with ice cubes or iced water is also suitable for the purpose. In farm storage in lower compartment of refrigerator is suitable.

Vaccination should be carried out during the cooler period of the day which reduces stress in birds. Temperature above 30oC may affect vaccine potency. Mixing of vaccine should not be done in sun, as direct rays will affect the potency and inactivated vaccines. Vaccine should be mixed and kept in shade during distribution period. Don´t use premixed vaccines kept overnight.

As vaccines are vacuum sealed (administered via drinking water) when opened in air draw contaminated air into the container thus such vaccines must be opened under water into which it is to be mixed.

Tape water is mixed with chlorine to kill germs and this water when used can kill inactivated live vaccine. All sanitizers in water should be avoided during vaccination, thus avoid such water or treat before use. Antibiotic treatment should be stopped three days before and after vaccination. Live virus vaccine are readily destroyed by sanitizers and chlorine. Water equipments should be free of disinfectant.

For vaccination via drinking water, the amount of water for mixing varies with age, type of bird and climate. Water should be withdrawn 2-3 hours before giving the vaccine for fast consumption of vaccine. Remove water up to 2 hours in hot weather and 2-4 hours in cool weather before administration. All vaccines should be consumed within two hours of mixing; adding skim milk powder prolongs vaccine life. Adequate dosage of vaccine must be provided to flock. As water is withdrawn all birds will come to drink water so it is advisable to distribute the vaccine in more drinkers than needed for normal watering of flock.

Designing and implementing an effective vaccination schedule requires a thorough knowledge of disease, risk situation in a specific area, an understanding about the interaction between chick and vaccine and thorough planning. Decide whether or not to vaccinate against a disease depends on the likelihood that the birds in a flock may be exposed to that specific disease.

As a good breeder hen produces a maximum number of hatching eggs thus there must be least negative impact of disease on egg production. Broiler chicken also relies on breeder hen for maternally derived antibody during first few weeks of life for protection against disease. Thus breeder vaccination needs additional attention. For many viral diseases the breeder is primed with live vaccine followed by an inactivated booster vaccination 4-6 weeks later to provide protection for full production cycle.

GUIDELINE FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION:

Vaccination of poultry younger than 10 days (5-7days) of age cannot be expected to produce uniform or lasting immunity, even in the absence of maternal immunity. Exception is that vaccination for Mareks disease is ordinarily given on the day of hatch.

Guideline for vaccine administration:

Each vaccine is designed for a specific route of administration so use only the recommended route.

Do not vaccinate sick birds (except in outbreak of laryngotracheitis or fowl pox).

Protect vaccines from heat and direct sunlight.

Most vaccines are living, disease producing agents so handle them with care.

Layer Breeder

Bulk of breeder vaccinations are administered in the first 18 weeks (rearing phase)Protection should be at peak level when first hatching eggs are collected and persist up to end of egg production cycle.

To avoid stress to the breeder bird vaccination during lay is kept to an absolute minimum, generally limited to the mass administration of certain live vaccines (ND- Newcastle disease, IB-Infectious bronchitis).

Vaccination at day old or in ovo with suitable MD-Markes Disease vaccine to reduce losses, Sensitive nature of vaccine used requires specific attention to vaccine handling and administration procedures. Vaccination in hatchery is preferred. Even the best MD vaccination does not equate guaranteed freedom.

Vaccine against coccidiosis has been a routine addition to most breeder vaccination schedules. Administered correctly these vaccines induce a predictable immunity to the selected Eimeria strains.

Broiler Breeder

Vaccination of the broiler breeder does not end at protecting the hen and egg production. Breeders immunity has a direct impact on the immunity of the broiler at hatch. Protection to offspring´s/chicks is transferred via yolk called maternally derived antibody (MDA). Chicks hatched in an environment will face the same disease challenges the hen faced in past, but there is balance now a day by keeping hen in one environment, hatching eggs in hatchery and raising broiler chick in different environment away from breeder.

IBD- Infectious Bursal Disease is best example of vaccination in breeders primarily for benefit of broiler.IBD specific MDA protects the broiler from infection during the first two to 3 weeks, after which live IBD vaccines are administered.

Vaccination of the breeder prevents transmission of reovirus via egg and transfers protective levels of reovirus specific MDA to broiler chick. Reovirus is associated with poor growth in broilers.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) and chicken infectious anaemia (CIAV) are both viral pathogens transferred `from breeder to broiler via the egg.

Breeders are vaccinated against salmonella and are less susceptible to salmonella infection; there is also reduced risk of salmonella transmission via the egg. The protection level of MDA transferred from breeder to the broiler protect against infection during 1st weeks post hatch, when broiler is most susceptible to infection

TABLE: 1. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (BROILER)

TABLE: 2. VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR POULTRY (LAYERS)

Source Engormix.com

Published: Zarai Media Team

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