Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 28 Feb, 2015: Lahore Gram White(local) 5750 Gram Black 6750 Gram Pulse 6450 Mash 7256 Maize 2250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12750 Apple (Ammre) 6100 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 4550 Orange(100Pcs) 610 Kinnow (100Pcs) 630 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 18900 Green Fodder 275 Pomegranate(Badana) 23800 Musambi(100Pcs) 1120 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2050 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Melon 5900 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7150 Strawberry 18350 Dates (Aseel) 15500 Lemon (China) 4900 Pomegranate Desi 23800 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7000 ¡ Faisalabad Wheat 3388 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7000 Rice (IRRI) 3438 Sugar 5150 Gram White(local) 5250 Gram Black 5425 Gram Pulse 5850 Moong 12500 Moong Pulse 13750 Mash 11500 Maize 2400 Millet 2475 RapeSeed (Torya) 6750 Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1925 Garlic (China) 9550 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 3100 Spinach 600 Brinjal 2800 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8350 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 12150 Pumpkin 2500 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 1525 Turnip 500 Radish 700 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9550 Apple (Golden) 6200 Apple (Ammre) 3800 Banana(DOZENS) 43 Guava 3400 Orange(100Pcs) 550 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1675 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16700 Banola Cake 3500 Green Fodder 288 Wheat Straw 725 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10500 Rice Basmati (385) 5125 Pomegranate(Badana) 20500 Musambi(100Pcs) 700 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1400 Cabbage 1300 Jaggery (گڑ) 5875 Mash Pulse(local) 14000 Gram White(Importedl) 4375 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9625 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 4800 Dates (Aseel) 12500 Green Chilli 7750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3050 Lemon (China) 3700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3650 ¡ Gujranwala Rice Basmati Super (New) 7350 Sugar 5115 Gram White(local) 5750 Gram Black 5950 Gram Pulse 6150 Moong 13750 Moong Pulse 14650 Mash 12750 Maize 3750 Millet 2900 RapeSeed (Torya) 6650 Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 10800 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 3850 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5500 Cauliflower 550 Peas 1200 Turnip 700 Radish 700 Carrot 1200 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12200 Banana(DOZENS) 57 Guava 5700 Orange(100Pcs) 788 Kinnow (100Pcs) 555 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19000 Banola Cake 2900 Green Fodder 155 Wheat Straw 1000 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10750 Pomegranate(Badana) 24000 Musambi(100Pcs) 835 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6450 Mash Pulse(local) 14750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10350 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11400 Garlic (Local) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7550 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4100 Lemon (China) 4700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6300 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4750 ¡ Okara Wheat 3263 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7550 Rice (IRRI) 3350 Paddy Basmati 3650 Paddy (IRRI) 1988 Sugar 5060 Gram White(local) 6750 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 6450 Moong 12950 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 12950 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14750 Maize 2363 Millet 2450 Sorghum 5875 Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1700 Garlic (China) 11750 Ginger(China) 11750 Tomato 4750 Spinach 450 Brinjal 3400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18000 Cauliflower 1100 Peas 1500 Turnip 750 Radish 750 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12250 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Kinnow (100Pcs) 900 Banola Cake 3150 Green Fodder 345 Wheat Straw 688 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11750 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Musambi(100Pcs) 950 Cabbage 1300 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 9750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9700 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10900 Cucumber (Kheera) 2100 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Green Chilli 7250 Lemon (China) 3750 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 ¡ Sargodha Wheat 3213 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7125 Sugar 5075 Gram Black 5138 Gram Pulse 5438 Moong 11875 Moong Pulse 13688 Mash 12375 Mash Pulse(Imported) 16250 Masoor Whole(local) 9625 Masoor Pulse(local) 11125 Maize 2500 RapeSeed (Torya) 5250 Potato Fresh 1375 Onion 1475 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3700 Spinach 800 Brinjal 2950 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 1600 Turnip 1250 Radish 1200 Carrot 1375 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9500 Apple (Golden) 7350 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 4250 Kinnow (100Pcs) 535 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 738 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10250 Cabbage 1900 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 5750 Cucumber (Kheera) 2350 Green Chilli 7250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4750 Lemon (China) 4650 ¡ Rawalpindi Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Rice (IRRI) 3500 Sugar 5125 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 6250 Gram Pulse 6400 Moong 12650 Moong Pulse 13650 Mash 12500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13500 Maize 2800 Millet 2800 Sorghum 3000 RapeSeed (Torya) 6875 Potato Fresh 1450 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 10250 Ginger(China) 11000 Tomato 3650 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2800 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19000 Tinda 2100 Pumpkin 2100 Cauliflower 1750 Peas 2100 Turnip 1200 Radish 1100 Carrot 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 8700 Apple (Golden) 5650 Apple (Ammre) 5000 Banana(DOZENS) 44 Guava 4350 Orange(100Pcs) 500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 350 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 15250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Pomegranate(Badana) 16550 Musambi(100Pcs) 550 Cabbage 1900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Garlic (Local) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Green Chilli 7850 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5050 Lemon (China) 4550 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4350 ¡ Multan Wheat 3225 Rice Basmati Super (New) 6188 Rice (IRRI) 2913 Sugar 4990 Gram Black 5275 Gram Pulse 5200 Moong 9550 Moong Pulse 10650 Mash 11375 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13250 Maize 2500 Millet 2375 Sorghum 5313 RapeSeed (Torya) 5125 Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1150 Garlic (China) 5400 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 2500 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18125 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 15000 Cauliflower 900 Peas 1600 Turnip 700 Radish 700 Carrot 1100 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10750 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Guava 3500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 530 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 15000 Grapes (Other) 15500 Banola 2607 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 688 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 6625 Rice Basmati (385) 4875 Musambi(100Pcs) 575 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1500 Groundnut 12750 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 5313 Gram White(Importedl) 7250 Ginger (Thai) 9500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9688 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11700 Garlic (Local) 10500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Melon 4500 Strawberry 12000 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 ¡ Bhalwal Potato Fresh 1250 Onion 1750 Garlic (China) 12500 Ginger(China) 12500 Tomato 4000 Spinach 750 Brinjal 3500 Cauliflower 1250 Peas 2250 Turnip 1250 Radish 1250 Carrot 1750 Apple (Golden) 11000 Banana(DOZENS) 6500 Guava 6500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 7500 Green Chilli 6500 Sweet Musk Melon 8500 ¡ Kasur Potato Fresh 1050 Onion 1405 Garlic (China) 9357 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 3542 Spinach 542 Brinjal 2467 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8100 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 11071 Tinda 1500 Cauliflower 724 Peas 1220 Turnip 450 Radish 232 Carrot 967 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12059 Apple (Ammre) 6251 Banana(DOZENS) 54 Guava 2773 Orange(100Pcs) 550 Kinnow (100Pcs) 485 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17667 Pomegranate(Badana) 26765 Musambi(100Pcs) 1008 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2153 Cabbage 1500 Ginger (Thai) 10500 Garlic (Local) 10527 Cucumber (Kheera) 2057 Melon 5962 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7647 Green Chilli 6048 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3815 ¡ Vehari Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 900 Garlic (China) 11250 Tomato 3250 Spinach 275 Brinjal 3750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11250 Cauliflower 1100 Peas 2000 Turnip 500 Radish 525 Carrot 1300 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12900 Apple (Golden) 7400 Banana(DOZENS) 57 Guava 3750 Cabbage 1600 Cucumber (Kheera) 3300 Green Chilli 7750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7750 ¡ Burewala Rice Basmati Super (New) 8750 Rice (IRRI) 3700 Sugar 2560 Gram White(local) 9000 Gram Black 7250 Gram Pulse 6900 Moong Pulse 15750 Masoor Whole(local) 11750 Masoor Pulse(local) 14250 Potato Fresh 1080 Onion 1215 Garlic (China) 12150 Ginger(China) 12150 Tomato 3400 Spinach 3 Brinjal 3188 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9450 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 9450 Cauliflower 935 Peas 1913 Turnip 935 Radish 513 Carrot 1148 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11200 Apple (Golden) 8075 Banana(DOZENS) 43 Guava 2125 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 20188 Green Fodder 238 Wheat Straw 638 Rice Basmati (385) 6250 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1063 Cabbage 935 Mash Pulse(local) 14750 Cucumber (Kheera) 2210 Melon 5525 Strawberry 17850 Green Chilli 7225 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4463 Lemon (Desi) 5525 Lemon (China) 4675 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5100 ¡ Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 7800 Sugar 5200 Gram White(local) 6200 Gram Black 5600 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong 10800 Mash 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 12400 Masoor Pulse(local) 14800 Millet 3400 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 2000 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 3200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 13000 Cauliflower 1550 Peas 2600 Turnip 850 Radish 750 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11650 Apple (Golden) 7200 Banana(DOZENS) 64 Guava 6400 Kinnow (100Pcs) 574 Musambi(100Pcs) 125 Cabbage 1900 Jaggery (گڑ) 7400 Mash Pulse(local) 14600 Gram White(Importedl) 7800 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 2200 Melon 7200 Lemon (Other) 5400 Green Chilli 6000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 6000 ¡ Khanewal Potato Fresh 1150 Onion 1150 Garlic (China) 9600 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 3100 Spinach 700 Brinjal 2900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8250 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 1800 Turnip 3100 Radish 700 Carrot 1200 Banana(DOZENS) 51 Guava 3200 Kinnow (100Pcs) 575 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 625 Musambi(100Pcs) 1010 Cabbage 1050 Cucumber (Kheera) 2000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11000 Dates (Aseel) 13600 Green Chilli 5050 ¡ ArifWala Paddy Basmati 3470 Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 11500 Tomato 3750 Brinjal 4250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 14000 Cauliflower 3250 Peas 1650 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 7500 Apple (Golden) 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 38 Guava 2750 Cabbage 1700 Ginger (Thai) 12500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Melon 6500 Strawberry 20000 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4250 Lemon (China) 6500 ¡ PakPattan Rice Basmati Super (New) 9000 Rice (IRRI) 3200 Sugar 5150 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Black 6400 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong Pulse 13750 Masoor Pulse(local) 12000 Potato Fresh 1170 Onion 1530 Garlic (China) 8550 Ginger(China) 10350 Tomato 3188 Brinjal 2763 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8925 Cauliflower 2763 Peas 1615 Turnip 595 Radish 765 Carrot 1275 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13050 Apple (Golden) 6750 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 3188 Rice Basmati (385) 6250 Cabbage 1785 Jaggery (گڑ) 7200 Mash Pulse(local) 13750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1785 Strawberry 20400 Green Chilli 5925 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4038 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1615 ¡ Lodhran Potato Fresh 1068 Onion 1071 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 2083 Spinach 500 Brinjal 1700 Cauliflower 1328 Peas 1786 Turnip 500 Radish 729 Carrot 938 Apple (Golden) 8667 Apple (Ammre) 6833 Banana(DOZENS) 33 Guava 2857 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12056 Cabbage 846 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 2000 Melon 5357 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9444 Strawberry 15000 Green Chilli 7500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Lemon (China) 5250 ¡ HaroonAbad Potato Fresh 1227 Onion 1545 Garlic (China) 11364 Tomato 3863 Spinach 818 Brinjal 3864 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9545 Cauliflower 2955 Peas 2045 Turnip 1545 Radish 1227 Carrot 1546 Apple (Golden) 8637 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 4318 Kinnow (100Pcs) 417 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 25000 Cabbage 1591 Ginger (Thai) 11364 Cucumber (Kheera) 1909 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12273 Green Chilli 7727 Lemon (China) 5910 ¡ GujarKhan Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Rice (IRRI) 4313 Sugar 5230 Gram Black 6875 Gram Pulse 6938 Mash 12750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15250 Maize 2775 Millet 2725 Potato Fresh 1625 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 10750 Ginger(China) 12500 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1075 Brinjal 3550 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 22125 Tinda 3100 Cauliflower 1650 Peas 2300 Turnip 1775 Radish 1550 Carrot 2200 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11500 Apple (Golden) 8250 Banana(DOZENS) 71 Guava 6300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 215 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11500 Musambi(100Pcs) 725 Cabbage 1850 Jaggery (گڑ) 6475 Gram White(Importedl) 7250 Masoor Whole (Imported) 11063 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11938 Cucumber (Kheera) 2800 Green Chilli 9000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7028 ¡ Mailsi Potato Fresh 1050 Onion 925 Garlic (China) 11300 Tomato 3400 Spinach 613 Brinjal 3450 Cauliflower 1075 Peas 2288 Turnip 613 Radish 1175 Carrot 1210 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10138 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 2475 Kinnow (100Pcs) 773 Cabbage 1188 Ginger (Thai) 9875 Cucumber (Kheera) 1563 Green Chilli 7525 ¡ Chichawatni Rice Basmati Super (New) 9500 Rice (IRRI) 3550 Sugar 5200 Gram White(local) 7500 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong Pulse 15500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14500 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 13500 Ginger(China) 17500 Tomato 4000 Spinach 900 Brinjal 2750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 10500 Cauliflower 2100 Peas 2200 Turnip 1600 Radish 1300 Carrot 2100 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12600 Apple (Golden) 7750 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Guava 3000 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 23500 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11000 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 2750 Gram White(Importedl) 9500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Cucumber (Kheera) 2400 Melon 7250 Strawberry 18000 Green Chilli 7000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6500 Lemon (China) 6750 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 ¡ DunyaPur Potato Fresh 1050 Onion 1375 Ginger(China) 10750 Tomato 2625 Spinach 375 Brinjal 2375 Cauliflower 1050 Peas 1725 Turnip 525 Radish 475 Carrot 475 Apple (Golden) 7375 Guava 3625 Kinnow (100Pcs) 475 Garlic (Local) 10225 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12225 Green Chilli 6875 ¡ DGKHAN Wheat 3150 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9500 Rice (IRRI) 2950 Sugar 5300 Gram Black 5000 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 11000 Moong Pulse 14500 Mash 11500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11500 Maize 2550 Millet 2700 Sorghum 3250 RapeSeed (Torya) 5800 Potato Fresh 1300 Onion 1300 Garlic (China) 11500 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 2500 Spinach 750 Brinjal 2900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 14500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Cauliflower 1900 Peas 1900 Turnip 1500 Radish 1100 Carrot 6500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9500 Apple (Ammre) 3250 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Guava 3250 Orange(100Pcs) 390 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19500 Banola 2350 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 900 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Musambi(100Pcs) 575 Cabbage 1500 Jaggery (گڑ) 6500 Gram White(Importedl) 6500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Dates (Aseel) 14500 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6500 Lemon (China) 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6100 ¡ MandiBahaudin Wheat 3250 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7100 Paddy Basmati 3550 Sugar 5125 Masoor Whole(local) 7750 Maize 2100 Millet 2450 RapeSeed (Torya) 6250 Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 2000 Garlic (China) 10250 Ginger(China) 11250 Tomato 3300 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7800 Cauliflower 2500 Peas 2000 Turnip 650 Radish 850 Carrot 2000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Guava 5250 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Banola 3125 Banola Cake 3225 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10800 Cabbage 1600 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Green Chilli 7800 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3300 Lemon (China) 4250 ¡ Kamalia Potato Fresh 1350 Onion 1650 Garlic (China) 11000 Tomato 3750 Spinach 550 Cauliflower 1750 Peas 1750 Turnip 900 Radish 900 Carrot 1100 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 2750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 450 Musambi(100Pcs) 500 Cabbage 1350 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 2200 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11000 Green Chilli 8500 Lemon (China) 3250 ¡ PirMahal Potato Fresh 1370 Onion 1375 Garlic (China) 10600 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 4200 Spinach 440 Brinjal 2975 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 1700 Radish 740 Carrot 1260 Apple (Golden) 5300 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 2900 Kinnow (100Pcs) 640 Cabbage 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11800 Green Chilli 7200 Lemon (China) 3300 ¡ MianChannu Wheat 3238 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9250 Rice (IRRI) 3313 Paddy Basmati 3188 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 6063 Gram Black 6438 Gram Pulse 6338 Moong 11125 Moong Pulse 15375 Masoor Whole(local) 10438 Masoor Pulse(local) 12325 Maize 10405 Potato Fresh 1180 Onion 1480 Garlic (China) 9980 Ginger(China) 10980 Tomato 3180 Spinach 380 Brinjal 2480 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11980 Cauliflower 2280 Peas 1780 Turnip 1280 Radish 580 Carrot 1680 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11780 Apple (Golden) 6880 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Guava 2080 Kinnow (100Pcs) 780 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19180 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5688 Banola 2297 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 700 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14250 Rice Basmati (385) 5438 Musambi(100Pcs) 851 Cabbage 1380 Jaggery (گڑ) 5600 Mash Pulse(local) 14250 Ginger (Thai) 10980 Garlic (Local) 8480 Cucumber (Kheera) 1680 Green Chilli 7380 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3680 Lemon (China) 6480 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6625 ¡ HasalPur Potato Fresh 1530 Onion 1530 Tomato 4050 Cauliflower 1575 Peas 1710 Radish 810 Carrot 1620 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13050 Apple (Golden) 9000 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3150 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 20700 Cucumber (Kheera) 2475 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10350 ¡ KotChutta Wheat 3200 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9500 Rice (IRRI) 2950 Paddy (IRRI) 2900 Sugar 5250 Gram Black 5000 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 11000 Moong Pulse 12500 Mash 11500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14250 Maize 2500 Millet 2700 Sorghum 3250 RapeSeed (Torya) 5800 Potato Fresh 1300 Onion 1300 Garlic (China) 11500 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 2500 Spinach 750 Brinjal 2900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 13250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Cauliflower 1900 Peas 1900 Turnip 1500 Radish 1100 Carrot 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9500 Apple (Ammre) 3250 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Guava 3250 Orange(100Pcs) 390 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19500 Banola 2300 Green Fodder 325 Wheat Straw 900 Rice Basmati (385) 6250 Musambi(100Pcs) 575 Cabbage 1500 Jaggery (گڑ) 6500 Gram White(Importedl) 7000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6500 Lemon (China) 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6100 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 3313 Rice Basmati Super (New) 8900 Rice (IRRI) 3950 Sugar 5225 Gram White(local) 5700 Gram Black 5250 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12875 Maize 3150 Millet 3150 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 7100 Potato Fresh 1300 Onion 1650 Garlic (China) 10250 Ginger(China) 11750 Tomato 3400 Spinach 1600 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7900 Tinda 2900 Cauliflower 950 Peas 1700 Radish 950 Carrot 1600 Apple (Golden) 8250 Apple (Ammre) 6200 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3900 Kinnow (100Pcs) 390 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11750 Rice Basmati (385) 6200 Cabbage 1900 Jaggery (گڑ) 7350 Cucumber (Kheera) 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Green Chilli 6200 Lemon (China) 4900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3000 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 1700 Onion 1700 Garlic (China) 9500 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 3750 Spinach 650 Brinjal 2500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 10000 Tinda 2350 Cauliflower 1800 Peas 1800 Turnip 1000 Radish 700 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10000 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 3500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 435 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 18000 Musambi(100Pcs) 895 Cabbage 1500 Garlic (Local) 12250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Melon 7000 Strawberry 17500 Green Chilli 8000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3750 Lemon (China) 5000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4250 ¡ Mianwali Wheat 3100 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 9250 Gram Black 4700 Gram Pulse 5650 Moong 8750 Moong Pulse 11000 Masoor Pulse(local) 10000 Maize 4650 Millet 3350 RapeSeed (Torya) 6050 Potato Fresh 1695 Potato Store 1565 Onion 1670 Garlic (China) 12450 Tomato 4170 Spinach 578 Brinjal 3765 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19500 Tinda 3150 Cauliflower 2270 Peas 2170 Radish 670 Carrot 1270 Apple (Golden) 10925 Banana(DOZENS) 70 Guava 6965 Kinnow (100Pcs) 9375 Banola 2250 Green Fodder 650 Wheat Straw 675 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11650 Musambi(100Pcs) 12950 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Mash Pulse(local) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 2890 Green Chilli 9890 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6390 Lemon (China) 9890 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6150 ¡ Jhang Potato Fresh 800 Potato Store 1200 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 9500 Ginger(China) 10000 Tomato 3600 Spinach 900 Brinjal 3200 Pumpkin 3600 Cauliflower 2700 Peas 1800 Turnip 1450 Radish 375 Carrot 1200 Apple (Ammre) 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 610 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16000 Pomegranate(Badana) 20000 Cabbage 1450 Cucumber (Kheera) 2200 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10500 Green Chilli 8200 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3600 ¡ SadiqAbad Rice Basmati Super (New) 8800 Rice (IRRI) 2900 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Black 7000 Gram Pulse 6800 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15000 Masoor Whole(local) 11000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12000 Millet 2800 Potato Fresh 1485 Onion 1215 Garlic (China) 11475 Ginger(China) 12375 Tomato 3188 Spinach 298 Brinjal 2125 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 24000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6588 Cauliflower 1615 Peas 2338 Turnip 1148 Radish 1148 Carrot 1870 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10625 Apple (Golden) 9350 Banana(DOZENS) 38 Guava 3188 Kinnow (100Pcs) 517 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 21250 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5080 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12000 Rice Basmati (385) 5200 Musambi(100Pcs) 921 Cabbage 1148 Mash Pulse(local) 14000 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 11000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1913 Green Chilli 6588 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4888 Lemon (Desi) 6588 Lemon (China) 4888 Gram Flour (بیسن) 8000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3740 ¡ Khanpur Rice Basmati Super (New) 8750 Rice (IRRI) 3125 Sugar 5010 Gram White(local) 6550 Gram Black 6050 Gram Pulse 6450 Moong Pulse 15900 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12650 Masoor Whole(local) 11400 Masoor Pulse(local) 14750 Potato Fresh 1215 Onion 1215 Garlic (China) 11475 Tomato 2320 Spinach 360 Brinjal 1800 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7800 Cauliflower 1080 Peas 8550 Turnip 880 Radish 560 Carrot 1200 Apple (Golden) 8325 Banana(DOZENS) 43 Guava 3800 Kinnow (100Pcs) 567 Green Fodder 350 Wheat Straw 550 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11250 Cabbage 1000 Mash Pulse(local) 15400 Gram White(Importedl) 8900 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10550 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11900 Cucumber (Kheera) 1800 Melon 6600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12825 Strawberry 15800 Green Chilli 6600 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5800 Lemon (Desi) 7000 Lemon (China) 5400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6450 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2200 ¡ KotAdu Wheat 3060 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7150 Rice (IRRI) 3150 Paddy (IRRI) 1725 Sugar 5150 Gram White(local) 8513 Gram Black 5175 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 10250 Moong Pulse 12450 Masoor Whole(local) 7463 Masoor Pulse(local) 13350 Maize 2658 Millet 2438 RapeSeed (Torya) 6080 Potato Fresh 1450 Potato Store 1463 Onion 1700 Garlic (China) 15913 Tomato 3950 Spinach 950 Brinjal 3450 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18450 Cauliflower 2950 Peas 2700 Turnip 955 Radish 750 Carrot 1450 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13900 Apple (Golden) 8950 Banana(DOZENS) 56 Guava 3925 Kinnow (100Pcs) 503 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5925 Banola 2688 Green Fodder 363 Wheat Straw 663 Groundnut 19950 Cabbage 1750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5625 Mash Pulse(local) 13850 Ginger (Thai) 12950 Cucumber (Kheera) 3450 Green Chilli 7450 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6950 Lemon (Desi) 5900 Lemon (China) 4933 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5850 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3450 ¡ LiaqatPur Potato Fresh 1420 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 11660 Ginger(China) 13340 Tomato 3340 Spinach 830 Brinjal 2340 Cauliflower 2190 Peas 2075 Turnip 1150 Radish 1245 Carrot 1830 Apple (Golden) 9250 Banana(DOZENS) 44 Guava 3280 Kinnow (100Pcs) 334 Cabbage 2320 Cucumber (Kheera) 2680 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12075 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7200 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 5450 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong Pulse 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 14100 Potato Fresh 1400 Onion 1600 Garlic (China) 12250 Tomato 5150 Spinach 550 Brinjal 3300 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9250 Cauliflower 2000 Peas 1800 Turnip 1000 Radish 550 Carrot 1250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12200 Banana(DOZENS) 41 Guava 3900 Kinnow (100Pcs) 415 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 13750 Rice Basmati (385) 5900 Pomegranate(Badana) 21500 Cabbage 1600 Mash Pulse(local) 14100 Ginger (Thai) 12250 Cucumber (Kheera) 2100 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7650 Green Chilli 8250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3100 Lemon (China) 5150 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5150 ¡ Summandri Potato Fresh 1165 Onion 1450 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 4400 Spinach 450 Brinjal 3750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7650 Cauliflower 1150 Peas 1125 Turnip 650 Radish 675 Carrot 1025 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 2800 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17350 Cabbage 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9400 Green Chilli 6750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3000 ¡ Tandlianwala Potato Fresh 1334 Onion 1267 Garlic (China) 12633 Tomato 3765 Brinjal 3350 Cauliflower 2239 Peas 1427 Apple (Golden) 6111 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3337 Ginger (Thai) 12550 Green Chilli 5865 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3325 ¡ Fatehpur Wheat 3190 Moong 10250 Maize 2300 Potato Fresh 1575 Onion 1275 Garlic (China) 12250 Ginger(China) 13600 Tomato 3600 Spinach 850 Brinjal 3125 Tinda 4125 Cauliflower 1575 Peas 12590 Turnip 1000 Radish 730 Carrot 1275 Apple (Golden) 10225 Banana(DOZENS) 43 Guava 4580 Kinnow (100Pcs) 2150 Cabbage 1600 Cucumber (Kheera) 2125 Melon 9535 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 14150 Apple (Gatcha) 6150 Green Chilli 7200 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3435 ¡ Sheikhupura Potato Fresh 1200 Potato Store 800 Onion 1250 Garlic (China) 9450 Ginger(China) 10850 Tomato 3500 Spinach 450 Brinjal 2400 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7900 Tinda 1500 Pumpkin 3850 Cauliflower 600 Peas 1200 Turnip 450 Radish 600 Carrot 1200 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11950 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Guava 3850 Orange(100Pcs) 521 Kinnow (100Pcs) 687 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 14850 Pomegranate(Badana) 22050 Musambi(100Pcs) 937 Cabbage 1050 Garlic (Local) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6850 Green Chilli 7650 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3250 Lemon (China) 3850 ¡ Kamoke Rice Basmati Super (New) 7550 Sugar 5110 Gram White(local) 5850 Gram Black 6050 Gram Pulse 6150 Moong 13900 Moong Pulse 14650 Mash 12650 Maize 3700 Millet 2850 Sorghum 4350 Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 10500 Ginger(China) 12000 Tomato 3950 Spinach 925 Brinjal 2900 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 9250 Cauliflower 750 Peas 1250 Turnip 900 Radish 950 Carrot 1200 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12250 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Guava 5700 Orange(100Pcs) 775 Kinnow (100Pcs) 555 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 18900 Banola Cake 2900 Green Fodder 145 Wheat Straw 1000 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10900 Pomegranate(Badana) 23750 Musambi(100Pcs) 820 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6400 Mash Pulse(local) 14900 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10100 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11100 Garlic (Local) 19300 Cucumber (Kheera) 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7600 Green Chilli 6850 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4750 Lemon (China) 4700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4750 ¡ Shorkot Potato Fresh 1275 Onion 1275 Garlic (China) 10800 Ginger(China) 10900 Tomato 3800 Spinach 650 Brinjal 2375 Cauliflower 1625 Peas 1825 Turnip 1050 Radish 513 Carrot 1425 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3600 Kinnow (100Pcs) 4000 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17500 Cabbage 1625 Cucumber (Kheera) 2425 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10900 Green Chilli 7400 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 7500 Rice (IRRI) 3400 Sugar 5200 Gram Pulse 6600 Moong 15000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14650 Potato Fresh 1650 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 11500 Ginger(China) 14000 Tomato 4500 Spinach 1250 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17000 Peas 2250 Turnip 1250 Radish 1250 Carrot 1650 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3500 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11500 Rice Basmati (385) 5500 Cabbage 2250 Gram White(Importedl) 10500 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 13200 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Green Chilli 9000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 ¡ TALAGANG Potato Fresh 1350 Onion 1350 Garlic (China) 10400 Ginger(China) 12600 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1400 Brinjal 3500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9000 Tinda 2700 Cauliflower 1700 Peas 2500 Turnip 1350 Radish 1350 Carrot 1400 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9230 Apple (Golden) 8100 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Orange(100Pcs) 525 Kinnow (100Pcs) 430 Musambi(100Pcs) 800 Cucumber (Kheera) 2100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5900 Lemon (China) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 ¡ Sanglahill Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 1400 Ginger(China) 11200 Tomato 3400 Spinach 380 Brinjal 4200 Cauliflower 900 Peas 1400 Turnip 580 Radish 680 Carrot 1000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10400 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 4200 Kinnow (100Pcs) 240 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17200 Melon 5200 Green Chilli 7600 Lemon (China) 3200 ¡ Malakwal Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 10500 Ginger(China) 10750 Tomato 3150 Spinach 800 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 1450 Turnip 650 Radish 300 Carrot 1650 Apple (Golden) 7300 Banana(DOZENS) 3250 Guava 2750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 313 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19000 Cabbage 1550 Ginger (Thai) 9000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10500 Strawberry 10750 Green Chilli 7300 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4250 ¡ Jauharabad Wheat 3150 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7850 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5250 Gram White(local) 6100 Gram Black 5150 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 12500 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 12500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Masoor Whole(local) 12750 Masoor Pulse(local) 16500 Maize 3125 Millet 2450 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 5875 Potato Fresh 1400 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 10900 Ginger(China) 11800 Tomato 3600 Spinach 900 Brinjal 3200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 10000 Cauliflower 1800 Peas 2300 Turnip 900 Radish 700 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11800 Apple (Golden) 8200 Banana(DOZENS) 59 Guava 3600 Kinnow (100Pcs) 4500 Banola Cake 2975 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Cabbage 1100 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Mash Pulse(local) 12750 Gram White(Importedl) 12450 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11750 Cucumber (Kheera) 2300 Green Chilli 9100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3600 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6400 ¡ Shahjewana Potato Fresh 800 Potato Store 1200 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 9700 Ginger(China) 25250 Tomato 3600 Spinach 700 Brinjal 2700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8200 Pumpkin 2500 Cauliflower 1700 Peas 1600 Turnip 1100 Radish 375 Carrot 1200 Apple (Ammre) 5000 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 3225 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17000 Pomegranate(Badana) 19950 Cabbage 1400 Cucumber (Kheera) 1800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10500 Green Chilli 7300 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2700 ¡ Qadirpurrawan Potato Fresh 1100 Onion 1200 Garlic (China) 9750 Tomato 2900 Brinjal 2300 Pumpkin 3900 Cauliflower 900 Peas 1700 Carrot 1100 Apple (Golden) 8250 Orange(100Pcs) 810 Kinnow (100Pcs) 575 Musambi(100Pcs) 825 Cabbage 900 Ginger (Thai) 9750 Garlic (Local) 10750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Green Chilli 6750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4750 ¡ kotmoman Potato Fresh 8150 Onion 1600 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 11000 Tomato 4750 Spinach 900 Cauliflower 2000 Peas 2000 Turnip 8150 Radish 900 Apple (Golden) 8500 Banana(DOZENS) 42 Guava 4500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9000 Green Chilli 8250 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology

Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens.

In Sindh and other provinces of Pakistan, farmers spray toxic chemicals (pesticides) on cotton, vegetables, oilseeds and fruit crops. The pesticides have brought positive results in boosting production but many chemicals have caused resistance in pest species.

Biological control of natural enemies Its intensive and indiscriminate use has caused diseases such as cardiac, diabetics, indigestion, and kidney failure etc. It has also resulted in the environmental pollution, besides, contaminating food.

Pesticides have been accumulating in the soil, air and water which calls for safe and cheap control methods. This can only be achieved through the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practice.

Pest control through environmentally safe ways is considered an integral part of balanced agro ecosystem management and protection. An effective management requires monitoring of insect population and observance of scientifically-based threshold values.

Pesticides use is one of the most common and effective methods for controlling pests and plant diseases. One of the safest biological methods is through predators and parasites.

All insect populations are affected to a greater or lesser extent by natural enemies, meaning the "balance of nature" and natural regulation. Actually, Darwin's term "struggle for existence" is what we call natural enemies. These are the primary regulating force in the dynamics of their populations.

It is important to know what natural enemies are affecting an insect pest population and to obtain an estimate of their impact. Such information may be the basis for explaining pest population density and predicting outbreaks.

Since the establishment of canal system in Sindh, many important crops are cultivated round the year. Due to regular cultivation of land, hundreds of insect pests appear that reduce the quality and quantity of crops.

Development of the predator population depends on the availability of prey. A number of beneficial insects are found in fields, where their food habits are different. A high reproductive rate is important so that populations of natural enemy can rapidly increase when hosts are available.

In Pakistan some experiments have proved that many insect predators naturally occur on the agro-ecosystem and feed on different pests. Amongst those predators, Coccinellid beetles occupy a unique position as a biological controlling agent.

Ladybird beetles belong to the family Coccinellidae, order Coleoptera class insecta. The Coleoptera comprises largest group of insects. These vary in size from 0.25mm to 150mm. The wing structure is quite characteristic. The front pair of wings are known as elytra.

Biological control of natural enemies Elytra are hard and thick sheath serving as a cover for their body and hind membranous wings. Hind wings are used for flight and during flight the front elytra are kept stretched on each side. The Coleoptera is the largest order in class insecta having 220,000 described species.

The Ladybird beetles are widely distributed throughout the world and feed on many insect species which occur on trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses and cultivated crops. Therefore, Ladybird beetles are known as one of the most beneficial and recognizable groups of insects.

The bright colours of Ladybird beetles warn enemies that they have a bitter taste. The spots of each species are arranged in a different pattern. They are carnivorous characterized by the mandibles having simple or bifid apices and each jaw being armed with a basal tooth for grasping and chewing their hosts.

The common species of Ladybird beetles, which occur in our agro-ecosystem are; 7-spotted beetle, coccinella septempunctata L., 11-spotted beetle, Coccinella undecumpunctata L., Zigzag beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab., Coccinella transversals and Brumus suturalis F. These are most important of all predators, both adults and larvae are voracious predators of many insect species.

Scientifically, it has been proved that the above mentioned beetles, each can consume about 40-60 individuals/day of aphids, jassids, white flies, mites, scale insect and eggs of various moths.

Looking at the efficiency of Ladybird beetles, we have to promote these insect species to control the noxious pests and to avoid the use of pesticides, which will keep our environment safe and healthy.  Source The DAWN

By Bhai Khan Solangi

 

Published: Zarai Media Team

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