Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 22 Jan, 2015: Okara Wheat 3250 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7550 Rice (IRRI) 3550 Paddy Basmati 3563 Paddy (IRRI) 2000 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 6750 Gram Black 5950 Gram Pulse 6350 Moong 12900 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 12450 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14250 Maize 2325 Millet 2400 Sorghum 5963 Potato Fresh 1700 Onion 1850 Garlic (China) 13750 Ginger(China) 9750 Tomato 3400 Spinach 775 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18000 Cauliflower 950 Peas 4250 Turnip 1150 Radish 1100 Carrot 1850 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12250 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17850 Banola Cake 3138 Green Fodder 345 Wheat Straw 688 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11750 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Musambi(100Pcs) 800 Cabbage 1700 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9550 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11550 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Green Chilli 5750 Lemon (China) 3750 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6700 ¡ Vehari Wheat 3225 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9250 Rice (IRRI) 3450 Paddy Basmati 3563 Paddy (IRRI) 1750 Sugar 5000 Gram White(local) 6950 Gram Black 6750 Gram Pulse 7463 Moong Pulse 15925 Mash Pulse(Imported) 8550 Masoor Whole(local) 10950 Masoor Pulse(local) 14900 Maize 2125 Millet 2450 RapeSeed (Torya) 5375 Potato Fresh 1450 Onion 875 Garlic (China) 14000 Tomato 2850 Spinach 800 Brinjal 2350 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 23900 Cauliflower 650 Peas 5250 Turnip 850 Radish 650 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 6550 Apple (Golden) 7300 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 3750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 475 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16750 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5063 Banola 2253 Banola Cake 2945 Green Fodder 320 Wheat Straw 655 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12900 Rice Basmati (385) 5503 Musambi(100Pcs) 850 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 600 Cabbage 1450 Jaggery (گڑ) 6925 Mash Pulse(local) 13250 Gram White(Importedl) 9975 Ginger (Thai) 13000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 11275 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11950 Cucumber (Kheera) 5900 Green Chilli 6350 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5850 Lemon (China) 3850 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7513 ¡ Burewala Potato Fresh 1710 Onion 1260 Garlic (China) 13050 Tomato 2763 Spinach 5 Cauliflower 935 Peas 4675 Turnip 1105 Radish 1105 Carrot 1360 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10225 Apple (Golden) 7650 Banana(DOZENS) 44 Guava 2338 Kinnow (100Pcs) 425 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 15325 Green Fodder 401 Wheat Straw 750 Musambi(100Pcs) 4038 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2763 Cabbage 1275 Cucumber (Kheera) 4888 Green Chilli 5100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5738 Lemon (China) 4463 ¡ Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 8300 Sugar 5350 Gram White(local) 6200 Gram Black 5600 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong 10800 Moong Pulse 12000 Mash 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 12800 Masoor Pulse(local) 15000 Millet 3200 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 10000 Tomato 3600 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 3400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8200 Cauliflower 1800 Peas 5400 Turnip 1200 Radish 1100 Carrot 1800 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 7200 Banana(DOZENS) 54 Guava 6200 Kinnow (100Pcs) 410 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16200 Musambi(100Pcs) 10000 Cabbage 2200 Jaggery (گڑ) 7200 Mash Pulse(local) 14800 Gram White(Importedl) 7800 Ginger (Thai) 10000 Cucumber (Kheera) 5000 Lemon (Other) 4000 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 6000 ¡ MuzafarGhar Potato Fresh 10000 Onion 1200 Garlic (China) 14000 Ginger(China) 10000 Tomato 2900 Spinach 800 Brinjal 2500 Cauliflower 1300 Peas 5500 Turnip 1200 Radish 6000 Carrot 1800 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 4500 Cabbage 2000 Green Chilli 4500 ¡ Patoki Potato Fresh 1900 Potato Store 1300 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 13500 Ginger(China) 13250 Tomato 3800 Spinach 1300 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 10200 Tinda 3800 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 5750 Turnip 1300 Radish 900 Carrot 1900 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13500 Apple (Golden) 8250 Apple (Ammre) 5750 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 3800 Orange(100Pcs) 625 Kinnow (100Pcs) 450 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19500 Musambi(100Pcs) 1200 Cabbage 2100 Ginger (Thai) 12500 Cucumber (Kheera) 5800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 9500 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 8800 Lemon (China) 4500 ¡ Mailsi Potato Fresh 1825 Onion 925 Garlic (China) 11850 Tomato 2988 Spinach 738 Brinjal 2800 Cauliflower 1400 Peas 5200 Turnip 1225 Radish 1170 Carrot 1170 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10388 Apple (Golden) 7355 Banana(DOZENS) 32 Guava 2350 Kinnow (100Pcs) 2688 Cabbage 1650 Ginger (Thai) 10200 Cucumber (Kheera) 4675 Green Chilli 5500 Lemon (China) 4650 ¡ LalaMusa Wheat 3390 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7725 Sugar 4925 Gram White(local) 5825 Gram Black 6325 Gram Pulse 5900 Moong 13250 Moong Pulse 14625 Mash 12800 Mash Pulse(Imported) 10850 Masoor Whole(local) 9850 Masoor Pulse(local) 13800 Maize 2060 Millet 2325 Potato Fresh 2325 Potato Store 1650 Onion 2300 Garlic (China) 12400 Tomato 4275 Spinach 1675 Brinjal 3300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8200 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 5450 Turnip 1700 Radish 1300 Carrot 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12850 Apple (Golden) 7275 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 5650 Orange(100Pcs) 390 Kinnow (100Pcs) 315 Banola 2900 Banola Cake 2900 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10300 Cabbage 2325 Jaggery (گڑ) 5950 Mash Pulse(local) 12850 Gram White(Importedl) 8325 Ginger (Thai) 10750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10350 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10975 Cucumber (Kheera) 4250 Lemon (Other) 4225 Green Chilli 6000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6525 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6225 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4200 ¡ Chakwal Gram White(local) 5700 Gram Black 5250 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12875 Maize 3150 Millet 3150 Apple (Golden) 7250 Apple (Ammre) 6200 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 6650 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Jaggery (گڑ) 7350 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Lemon (China) 4900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 ¡ RajanPur Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 900 Tomato 2000 Brinjal 1800 Cauliflower 900 Peas 4300 Turnip 900 Radish 2300 Carrot 1300 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10250 Apple (Golden) 5650 Guava 3950 Cabbage 1400 Lemon (Other) 6000 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7000 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7200 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 5450 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong Pulse 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 14100 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 14250 Tomato 5150 Spinach 850 Brinjal 4150 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Cauliflower 1050 Peas 7150 Turnip 1000 Radish 625 Carrot 1350 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12750 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 37 Guava 4150 Kinnow (100Pcs) 388 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12750 Rice Basmati (385) 5900 Pomegranate(Badana) 20250 Cabbage 1800 Mash Pulse(local) 14100 Ginger (Thai) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 8150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6250 Green Chilli 6150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 8150 Lemon (China) 1400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 ¡ Summandri Potato Fresh 1390 Onion 1350 Garlic (China) 15050 Ginger(China) 9350 Tomato 3500 Spinach 810 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 5400 Turnip 1040 Radish 600 Carrot 1110 Apple (Golden) 7900 Banana(DOZENS) 39 Guava 3350 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16750 Cabbage 2105 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8800 Green Chilli 5700 Pomegranate Desi 24500 ¡ Tandlianwala Potato Fresh 2043 Onion 2036 Tomato 3337 Brinjal 3280 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4242 Peas 4325 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9280 Apple (Golden) 6979 Banana(DOZENS) 3553 Guava 3038 Pomegranate(Badana) 18910 Green Chilli 3337 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4431 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 7500 Rice (IRRI) 3400 Sugar 5200 Gram Pulse 6600 Moong 15000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14650 Potato Fresh 2250 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 15500 Ginger(China) 15000 Tomato 4250 Spinach 1250 Brinjal 3000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Cauliflower 2250 Peas 6500 Turnip 2250 Radish 1250 Carrot 2250 Apple (Golden) 9500 Guava 4500 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 20000 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12000 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Pomegranate(Badana) 17000 Cabbage 2750 Gram White(Importedl) 10500 Ginger (Thai) 12000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 13200 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 13000 Green Chilli 8000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 ¡ Alipur Potato Fresh 2000 Onion 1200 Tomato 2900 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13000 Guava 5000 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology

Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens.

In Sindh and other provinces of Pakistan, farmers spray toxic chemicals (pesticides) on cotton, vegetables, oilseeds and fruit crops. The pesticides have brought positive results in boosting production but many chemicals have caused resistance in pest species.

Biological control of natural enemies Its intensive and indiscriminate use has caused diseases such as cardiac, diabetics, indigestion, and kidney failure etc. It has also resulted in the environmental pollution, besides, contaminating food.

Pesticides have been accumulating in the soil, air and water which calls for safe and cheap control methods. This can only be achieved through the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practice.

Pest control through environmentally safe ways is considered an integral part of balanced agro ecosystem management and protection. An effective management requires monitoring of insect population and observance of scientifically-based threshold values.

Pesticides use is one of the most common and effective methods for controlling pests and plant diseases. One of the safest biological methods is through predators and parasites.

All insect populations are affected to a greater or lesser extent by natural enemies, meaning the "balance of nature" and natural regulation. Actually, Darwin's term "struggle for existence" is what we call natural enemies. These are the primary regulating force in the dynamics of their populations.

It is important to know what natural enemies are affecting an insect pest population and to obtain an estimate of their impact. Such information may be the basis for explaining pest population density and predicting outbreaks.

Since the establishment of canal system in Sindh, many important crops are cultivated round the year. Due to regular cultivation of land, hundreds of insect pests appear that reduce the quality and quantity of crops.

Development of the predator population depends on the availability of prey. A number of beneficial insects are found in fields, where their food habits are different. A high reproductive rate is important so that populations of natural enemy can rapidly increase when hosts are available.

In Pakistan some experiments have proved that many insect predators naturally occur on the agro-ecosystem and feed on different pests. Amongst those predators, Coccinellid beetles occupy a unique position as a biological controlling agent.

Ladybird beetles belong to the family Coccinellidae, order Coleoptera class insecta. The Coleoptera comprises largest group of insects. These vary in size from 0.25mm to 150mm. The wing structure is quite characteristic. The front pair of wings are known as elytra.

Biological control of natural enemies Elytra are hard and thick sheath serving as a cover for their body and hind membranous wings. Hind wings are used for flight and during flight the front elytra are kept stretched on each side. The Coleoptera is the largest order in class insecta having 220,000 described species.

The Ladybird beetles are widely distributed throughout the world and feed on many insect species which occur on trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses and cultivated crops. Therefore, Ladybird beetles are known as one of the most beneficial and recognizable groups of insects.

The bright colours of Ladybird beetles warn enemies that they have a bitter taste. The spots of each species are arranged in a different pattern. They are carnivorous characterized by the mandibles having simple or bifid apices and each jaw being armed with a basal tooth for grasping and chewing their hosts.

The common species of Ladybird beetles, which occur in our agro-ecosystem are; 7-spotted beetle, coccinella septempunctata L., 11-spotted beetle, Coccinella undecumpunctata L., Zigzag beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab., Coccinella transversals and Brumus suturalis F. These are most important of all predators, both adults and larvae are voracious predators of many insect species.

Scientifically, it has been proved that the above mentioned beetles, each can consume about 40-60 individuals/day of aphids, jassids, white flies, mites, scale insect and eggs of various moths.

Looking at the efficiency of Ladybird beetles, we have to promote these insect species to control the noxious pests and to avoid the use of pesticides, which will keep our environment safe and healthy.  Source The DAWN

By Bhai Khan Solangi

 

Published: Zarai Media Team

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