Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 27, July 2014: Okara Wheat 3050 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11900 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5450 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 5550 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong 13450 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 10750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13100 Maize 2138 Millet 2500 Sorghum 6250 Potato Fresh 6250 Potato Store 4450 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 3900 Spinach 900 Brinjal 900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1250 Tinda 3400 Cauliflower 4250 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Banola Cake 3925 Green Fodder 340 Wheat Straw 663 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6150 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5250 Cabbage 4750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 20000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9450 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11450 Garlic (Local) 7750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 12250 Green Chilli 3400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3800 Lemon (Desi) 8250 Peach Special 9250 Plum 14750 Mango Desi 3000 Apricot White 12750 Grapes Gola 10950 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1050 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1100 ¡ Rawalpindi Wheat 3125 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 4250 Sugar 5570 Gram White(local) 6500 Gram Black 5400 Gram Pulse 6650 Moong 14500 Moong Pulse 16000 Mash 11750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Maize 2850 Millet 2650 Sorghum 4100 RapeSeed (Torya) 6625 Potato Store 6000 Onion 4000 Garlic (China) 9800 Ginger(China) 20100 Tomato 6650 Spinach 1900 Brinjal 2000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 3650 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5500 Peas 8900 Turnip 3000 Carrot 3700 Banana(DOZENS) 109 Grapes (Other) 7600 Mango(Chounsa) 6300 Mango(Desahri) 5000 Mango(Sindhri) 7400 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 15250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6550 Cabbage 4800 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Garlic (Local) 9800 Cucumber (Kheera) 4300 Melon 2400 Watermelon 2400 Mango (Malda) 4150 Lychee 15400 Dates (Aseel) 9500 Apple (Gatcha) 12800 Green Chilli 3700 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5100 Lemon (Desi) 10700 Peach 8700 Peach Special 13000 Plum 10000 Mango Desi 3700 Apricot White 10850 Grapes Gola 7600 Grapes Sundekhani 14150 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6350 Sweet Musk Melon 5000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2900 ¡ Multan Wheat 3338 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9750 Rice (IRRI) 3725 Sugar 5390 Gram Black 5175 Gram Pulse 5600 Moong 9125 Moong Pulse 11375 Mash 9125 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13875 Maize 2250 Millet 2551 RapeSeed (Torya) 6438 Potato Store 4800 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 6000 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3500 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5750 Peas 15000 Carrot 4500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 17000 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 4500 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 788 Mango(Desahri) 4500 Mango(Sindhri) 3250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11200 Rice Basmati (385) 6813 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 4950 Groundnut 6250 Cabbage 3950 Jaggery (گڑ) 5938 Gram White(Importedl) 6563 Ginger (Thai) 19000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9438 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12625 Garlic (Local) 6250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6000 Melon 3750 Green Chilli 3250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Peach 7850 Plum 8900 Mango Desi 2200 Apricot White 10800 Pomegranate Desi 7000 Pear 3950 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5775 Sweet Musk Melon 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1350 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ Bhalwal Potato Store 5750 Onion 4900 Garlic (China) 11750 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 6750 Spinach 3250 Brinjal 1900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2900 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2350 Tinda 8750 Cauliflower 3900 Peas 14750 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 9750 Apple (Gatcha) 9750 Lemon (Other) 14750 Green Chilli 7900 Peach 11500 Plum 21500 Mango Desi 5750 Grapes Sundekhani 27500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4250 ¡ Sahiwal Wheat 3150 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Rice (IRRI) 3900 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 7600 Gram Black 5500 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong Pulse 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12250 Masoor Pulse(local) 13250 Maize 2325 Millet 6350 Sorghum 2600 Potato Fresh 5850 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3175 Garlic (China) 9250 Tomato 4600 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 1125 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 3800 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 5850 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13500 Apple (Ammre) 8350 Banana(DOZENS) 73 Guava 3600 Mango(Chounsa) 6475 Green Fodder 388 Wheat Straw 725 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6650 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13500 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 14600 Apple (Gatcha) 10500 Green Chilli 3600 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5350 Lemon (Desi) 8400 Peach 7250 Peach Special 10500 Plum 13500 Mango Saharni 4850 Apricot White 10750 Grapes Gola 12850 Grapes Sundekhani 17000 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5950 Sweet Musk Melon 4750 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 5400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2025 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Gujrat Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6050 Gram Black 5700 Gram Pulse 5400 Moong 14200 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 13300 Masoor Whole(local) 10000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12250 Millet 3350 Potato Fresh 5750 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10600 Ginger(China) 27000 Tomato 4650 Spinach 1800 Brinjal 1400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 4250 Cauliflower 4000 Peas 11550 Turnip 3750 Radish 3600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12600 Banana(DOZENS) 92 Mango(Chounsa) 8150 Mango(Desahri) 6200 Mango(Sindhri) 9200 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12150 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 8250 Cabbage 5000 Jaggery (گڑ) 7350 Mash Pulse(local) 14800 Gram White(Importedl) 8800 Cucumber (Kheera) 3600 Dates (Aseel) 12550 Apple (Gatcha) 11650 Lemon (Other) 13500 Green Chilli 3800 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Peach Special 10800 Plum 11650 Mango Desi 3150 Apricot White 12550 Grapes Gola 12600 Grapes Sundekhani 23100 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Sweet Musk Melon 4550 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 7200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4500 ¡ PakPattan Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 4000 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong Pulse 15000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12000 Potato Fresh 6500 Potato Store 5000 Onion 3600 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 4700 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3600 Cauliflower 3500 Mango(Chounsa) 6400 Mango(Desahri) 6000 Mango(Sindhri) 6000 Rice Basmati (385) 7400 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Garlic (Local) 6000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1800 Dates (Aseel) 13000 Apple (Gatcha) 13000 Green Chilli 3500 Lemon (China) 9000 Peach 13800 Plum 15500 Mango Desi 2600 Apricot White 13000 Pomegranate Desi 10400 Grapes Gola 8600 Grapes Sundekhani 17200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Sweet Musk Melon 4400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1900 ¡ Mailsi Potato Store 4998 Onion 2798 Garlic (China) 9290 Tomato 6560 Spinach 713 Brinjal 1305 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1768 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1055 Tinda 2120 Cauliflower 5375 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13935 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5550 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5760 Ginger (Thai) 19765 Watermelon 1140 Apple (Gatcha) 8975 Green Chilli 3275 Lemon (Desi) 12145 Peach Special 10588 Mango Desi 2500 Apricot White 10415 Pomegranate Desi 5500 Grapes Gola 11450 Grapes Sundekhani 17650 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1633 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1555 ¡ Chichawatni Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5500 Gram White(local) 7500 Gram Black 6750 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong Pulse 15500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14500 Potato Fresh 7500 Potato Store 4750 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Tinda 4050 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 5750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14500 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Guava 3750 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13000 Rice Basmati (385) 7750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6250 Cabbage 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Garlic (Local) 6750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7500 Dates (Aseel) 18000 Apple (Gatcha) 11500 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5250 Lemon (Desi) 7500 Peach 10500 Plum 12750 Mango Saharni 4750 Apricot White 11000 Pomegranate Desi 6500 Grapes Gola 12500 Grapes Sundekhani 18100 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 Sweet Musk Melon 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2100 ¡ Kamalia Wheat 3281 Paddy Basmati 4750 Maize 1950 Sorghum 6375 Potato Store 4750 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 8500 Tomato 4100 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1800 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 4500 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5500 Ginger (Thai) 20500 Apple (Gatcha) 9000 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3300 Lemon (Desi) 10500 Peach 10500 Plum 11000 Mango Desi 2750 Apricot White 9500 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 14000 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1800 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 2938 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 4650 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11625 Maize 3150 Millet 2900 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 7100 Potato Store 5550 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 8100 Tomato 5750 Spinach 1350 Brinjal 1050 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 1250 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Cabbage 2400 Jaggery (گڑ) 7650 Ginger (Thai) 18375 Cucumber (Kheera) 850 Melon 3250 Green Chilli 3050 Lemon (Desi) 8900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Sweet Musk Melon 3850 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1750 ¡ Mianwali Potato Fresh 5365 Onion 3765 Garlic (China) 10925 Tomato 6465 Spinach 2090 Brinjal 1890 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2390 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2090 Banana(DOZENS) 80 Mango(Chounsa) 6965 Mango(Desahri) 4890 Mango(Sindhri) 7465 Green Chilli 4890 Lemon (Desi) 11700 Peach 5890 Peach Special 8890 Plum 11925 Mango Desi 2715 Apricot White 15400 Pear 7890 Sweet Musk Melon 5890 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2390 ¡ SadiqAbad Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 3600 Sugar 5400 Gram White(local) 7350 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6050 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13600 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 11200 Millet 3000 Potato Store 4230 Onion 2625 Garlic (China) 9450 Ginger(China) 20790 Tomato 3825 Spinach 935 Brinjal 935 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 24000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2465 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1955 Tinda 2635 Pumpkin 1445 Cauliflower 4888 Apple (Golden) 9350 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Mango(Chounsa) 4930 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14500 Rice Basmati (385) 7200 Cabbage 4845 Jaggery (گڑ) 6500 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Melon 2635 Watermelon 2125 Green Chilli 3910 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4165 Lemon (Desi) 7863 Peach 5737 Peach Special 12962 Mango Desi 3610 Apricot Yellow 10625 Grapes Gola 10284 Grapes Sundekhani 15510 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 935 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Summandri Potato Store 4750 Onion 3000 Tomato 6200 Spinach 1300 Brinjal 700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 3350 Pumpkin 1000 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 12500 Turnip 2300 Banana(DOZENS) 95 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Mango(Desahri) 4750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5200 Cabbage 5000 Garlic (Local) 6850 Cucumber (Kheera) 2600 Melon 3000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12500 Green Chilli 3100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Mango Desi 2300 Apricot White 9750 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ TALAGANG Potato Store 5100 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 8500 Ginger(China) 17400 Tomato 4400 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1150 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2100 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 2000 Apple (Golden) 12400 Mango(Sindhri) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 900 Melon 3700 Watermelon 1200 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1150 Lemon (Desi) 9100 Peach 6500 Plum 11300 Apricot White 10800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Biological control of natural enemies: Bio-Technology

Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include herbivores and plant pathogens.

In Sindh and other provinces of Pakistan, farmers spray toxic chemicals (pesticides) on cotton, vegetables, oilseeds and fruit crops. The pesticides have brought positive results in boosting production but many chemicals have caused resistance in pest species.

Biological control of natural enemies Its intensive and indiscriminate use has caused diseases such as cardiac, diabetics, indigestion, and kidney failure etc. It has also resulted in the environmental pollution, besides, contaminating food.

Pesticides have been accumulating in the soil, air and water which calls for safe and cheap control methods. This can only be achieved through the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practice.

Pest control through environmentally safe ways is considered an integral part of balanced agro ecosystem management and protection. An effective management requires monitoring of insect population and observance of scientifically-based threshold values.

Pesticides use is one of the most common and effective methods for controlling pests and plant diseases. One of the safest biological methods is through predators and parasites.

All insect populations are affected to a greater or lesser extent by natural enemies, meaning the "balance of nature" and natural regulation. Actually, Darwin's term "struggle for existence" is what we call natural enemies. These are the primary regulating force in the dynamics of their populations.

It is important to know what natural enemies are affecting an insect pest population and to obtain an estimate of their impact. Such information may be the basis for explaining pest population density and predicting outbreaks.

Since the establishment of canal system in Sindh, many important crops are cultivated round the year. Due to regular cultivation of land, hundreds of insect pests appear that reduce the quality and quantity of crops.

Development of the predator population depends on the availability of prey. A number of beneficial insects are found in fields, where their food habits are different. A high reproductive rate is important so that populations of natural enemy can rapidly increase when hosts are available.

In Pakistan some experiments have proved that many insect predators naturally occur on the agro-ecosystem and feed on different pests. Amongst those predators, Coccinellid beetles occupy a unique position as a biological controlling agent.

Ladybird beetles belong to the family Coccinellidae, order Coleoptera class insecta. The Coleoptera comprises largest group of insects. These vary in size from 0.25mm to 150mm. The wing structure is quite characteristic. The front pair of wings are known as elytra.

Biological control of natural enemies Elytra are hard and thick sheath serving as a cover for their body and hind membranous wings. Hind wings are used for flight and during flight the front elytra are kept stretched on each side. The Coleoptera is the largest order in class insecta having 220,000 described species.

The Ladybird beetles are widely distributed throughout the world and feed on many insect species which occur on trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses and cultivated crops. Therefore, Ladybird beetles are known as one of the most beneficial and recognizable groups of insects.

The bright colours of Ladybird beetles warn enemies that they have a bitter taste. The spots of each species are arranged in a different pattern. They are carnivorous characterized by the mandibles having simple or bifid apices and each jaw being armed with a basal tooth for grasping and chewing their hosts.

The common species of Ladybird beetles, which occur in our agro-ecosystem are; 7-spotted beetle, coccinella septempunctata L., 11-spotted beetle, Coccinella undecumpunctata L., Zigzag beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab., Coccinella transversals and Brumus suturalis F. These are most important of all predators, both adults and larvae are voracious predators of many insect species.

Scientifically, it has been proved that the above mentioned beetles, each can consume about 40-60 individuals/day of aphids, jassids, white flies, mites, scale insect and eggs of various moths.

Looking at the efficiency of Ladybird beetles, we have to promote these insect species to control the noxious pests and to avoid the use of pesticides, which will keep our environment safe and healthy.  Source The DAWN

By Bhai Khan Solangi

 

Published: Zarai Media Team

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