Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 11 Sep, 2014: Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3250 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4500 ¡ LiaqatPur Potato Fresh 7110 Potato Store 5490 Onion 3060 Garlic (China) 10455 Ginger(China) 21463 Tomato 5355 Spinach 1445 Brinjal 2295 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3825 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 7565 Tinda 4038 Cauliflower 4930 Peas 14238 Carrot 3315 Apple (Golden) 4888 Banana(DOZENS) 62 Mango(Chounsa) 7013 Pomegranate(Badana) 11475 Cabbage 4888 Jaggery (گڑ) 6343 Watermelon 1530 Apple (Gatcha) 8075 Green Chilli 3230 Grapes Gola 15938 ¡ ChackJhumra Potato Fresh 6700 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3500 Garlic (China) 10250 Ginger(China) 25250 Tomato 6150 Spinach 1600 Brinjal 1700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5700 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4650 Tinda 8150 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 5150 Peas 13250 Radish 1500 Carrot 3700 Banana(DOZENS) 62 Guava 4500 Mango(Chounsa) 5150 Ginger (Thai) 20500 Apple (Gatcha) 6300 Lemon (Desi) 8150 Peach 5150 Grapes Gola 11550 Grapes Sundekhani 16300 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 ¡ Summandri Potato Fresh 6800 Potato Store 5050 Onion 3350 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 6050 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 1500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3350 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3900 Cauliflower 3350 Peas 13500 Radish 2000 Carrot 2350 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 2350 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12500 Mango(Chounsa) 8950 Ginger (Thai) 24100 Garlic (Local) 12100 Apple (Gatcha) 8050 Green Chilli 3350 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4900 Grapes Gola 10500 Grapes Sundekhani 15750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4900 ¡ Fatehpur Wheat 3263 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 4200 Sugar 5763 Gram White(local) 4300 Gram Black 4825 Gram Pulse 6750 Moong 8000 Moong Pulse 14500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15500 Potato Store 6100 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 9750 Ginger(China) 25250 Tomato 4350 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1750 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3150 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 3750 Turnip 6450 Carrot 3800 Apple (Golden) 5000 Banana(DOZENS) 70 Grapes (Other) 11750 Mango(Chounsa) 7250 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 6075 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14000 Rice Basmati (385) 9500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 13000 Dates (Aseel) 4000 Apple (Gatcha) 9250 Green Chilli 4750 Peach 8750 Plum 9900 Grapes Gola 8500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1350 ¡ Depalpur Potato Fresh 7100 Potato Store 4550 Garlic (China) 9450 Tomato 5100 Spinach 8 Brinjal 3450 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5100 Cauliflower 4650 Peas 13450 Turnip 4100 Radish 2550 Carrot 4600 Banana(DOZENS) 70 Guava 2700 Mango(Chounsa) 6500 Musambi(100Pcs) 4500 Cabbage 4400 Ginger (Thai) 17100 Cucumber (Kheera) 3000 Apple (Gatcha) 7450 Lemon (China) 8350 Peach 8660 Pomegranate Desi 6100 Grapes Gola 8500 Grapes Sundekhani 18450 Sweet Musk Melon 4750 ¡ Kamoke Rice Basmati Super (New) 11900 Sugar 5775 Gram White(local) 5400 Gram Black 5850 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong 11000 Moong Pulse 12500 Mash 14000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Masoor Pulse(local) 13000 Potato Fresh 5600 Potato Store 4000 Onion 3150 Garlic (China) 9500 Ginger(China) 27500 Tomato 5250 Spinach 1550 Brinjal 2150 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4400 Cauliflower 3900 Peas 11000 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 4050 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10750 Mango(Chounsa) 9300 Green Fodder 295 Wheat Straw 1095 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 7500 Cabbage 3250 Jaggery (گڑ) 6400 Mash Pulse(local) 15500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Cucumber (Kheera) 4300 Apple (Gatcha) 8600 Green Chilli 4250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4400 Lemon (Desi) 9250 Peach Special 10500 Pomegranate Desi 7550 Grapes Gola 49475 Grapes Sundekhani 18500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6300 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3250 ¡ Chiniot Potato Fresh 6750 Potato Store 5250 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 5750 Spinach 2300 Brinjal 2100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5250 Tinda 6750 Cauliflower 5000 Peas 11500 Turnip 5750 Radish 1900 Carrot 4750 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 3750 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Cabbage 4250 Ginger (Thai) 21500 Cucumber (Kheera) 5250 Apple (Gatcha) 10000 Green Chilli 3400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5500 Lemon (Desi) 7500 Lemon (China) 5250 Peach 8500 Pomegranate Desi 9500 Grapes Gola 10500 Grapes Sundekhani 15500 Pear 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5250 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 10500 Sugar 5000 Gram Pulse 6100 Moong 13000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12600 Masoor Pulse(local) 12650 Potato Fresh 9250 Potato Store 6000 Onion 3750 Garlic (China) 11500 Tomato 7250 Spinach 1750 Brinjal 2250 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 7250 Tinda 7250 Cauliflower 5500 Peas 14500 Carrot 4250 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 5250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11750 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Gram White(Importedl) 10500 Ginger (Thai) 28000 Watermelon 1650 Apple (Gatcha) 8500 Green Chilli 4250 Lemon (China) 9500 Peach 8500 Grapes Sundekhani 19000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6600 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5250 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4750 ¡ TALAGANG Wheat 3300 Rice Basmati Super (New) 13900 Rice (IRRI) 4900 Sugar 5730 Gram White(local) 3900 Gram Black 4700 Gram Pulse 6900 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15900 Masoor Pulse(local) 14400 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3080 Garlic (China) 8900 Ginger(China) 18200 Tomato 5500 Spinach 1700 Brinjal 1600 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 27900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3650 Cauliflower 4000 Peas 10900 Turnip 2700 Radish 2600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 8400 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 4200 Mango(Chounsa) 5400 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 17900 Rice Basmati (385) 11900 Mash Pulse(local) 18900 Gram White(Importedl) 10900 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12900 Cucumber (Kheera) 2800 Green Chilli 3200 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2500 Lemon (Desi) 11100 Peach 4500 Apricot White 7600 Grapes Gola 8990 Grapes Sundekhani 18200 Pear 2700 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2700 ¡ Abdulhakim Potato Store 5400 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 9800 Tomato 6300 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 3000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4500 Tinda 3500 Cauliflower 4300 Carrot 4500 Banana(DOZENS) 88 Guava 3000 Mango(Chounsa) 5300 Cabbage 4300 Ginger (Thai) 23800 Garlic (Local) 8300 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7300 Apple (Gatcha) 8800 Green Chilli 3500 Grapes Gola 8800 Grapes Sundekhani 18300 ¡ Sanglahill Potato Fresh 6100 Potato Store 5300 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 9600 Tomato 6200 Spinach 2300 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 4400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5300 Cauliflower 4600 Peas 10000 Radish 10400 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 4800 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3200 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 10400 Mango(Chounsa) 6200 Apple (Gatcha) 8800 Green Chilli 4200 Lemon (Desi) 10000 Lemon (China) 6600 Peach 8300 Grapes Gola 9200 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2600 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3600 ¡ Havelilakha Potato Fresh 7750 Potato Store 5250 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 26500 Tomato 5500 Spinach 1750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 5500 Tinda 4500 Peas 15500 Carrot 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 9000 Guava 4500 Cabbage 5500 Ginger (Thai) 11000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7500 Apple (Gatcha) 9000 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6250 Lemon (China) 7500 Peach 11000 Grapes Gola 11000 Grapes Sundekhani 19000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3500 ¡ Taunsasharif Wheat 3200 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 3550 Sugar 5300 Gram Black 5500 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong 10250 Moong Pulse 13000 Mash 9750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Maize 2800 Millet 3350 Sorghum 3600 RapeSeed (Torya) 5800 Potato Fresh 5800 Potato Store 4350 Onion 2300 Garlic (China) 9750 Ginger(China) 25000 Tomato 3300 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1950 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 15500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4750 Tinda 2250 Cauliflower 2900 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Mango(Chounsa) 5250 Banola 2400 Green Fodder 388 Wheat Straw 663 Rice Basmati (385) 6750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5250 Cabbage 2900 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Gram White(Importedl) 7000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6500 Apple (Gatcha) 7250 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Lemon (Desi) 9250 Peach 7750 Plum 11500 Pomegranate Desi 8750 Grapes Gola 9500 Grapes Sundekhani 15000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2500 ¡ kotmoman Potato Fresh 7200 Potato Store 5150 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 20000 Tomato 4250 Spinach 2250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8000 Cauliflower 6000 Peas 17000 Banana(DOZENS) 67 Guava 2650 Apple (Gatcha) 5950 Green Chilli 4500 Lemon (China) 9500 Peach 5800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2700 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, 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Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan

The magnanimity of the agricultural problems in Pakistan has undoubtedly crippled the economy. In 1947, agriculture’s contribution of GDP was 53% that has shrunken down to 21% last year. Pakistan has great agricultural potential because of its alluvial soils. However, it is producing almost 50% below its potential. Neighboring India and Bangladesh have shown significant improvement in their agriculture sector unlike Pakistan. Where China is growing padi crops in Gobi desert, Pakistan is still relying on perennial canal system of irrigation. Let us make an attempt to study the agricultural profile of Pakistan followed by a brief discussion on problems in this sector.

Pakistan lies in a semi arid subtropical region. It is in the north east of the world; that is just above tropic of cancer i.e. 23.5oN. Its dimensions are 240 30’ N – 370 N and 610 E – 750 E approximately. Pakistan has 1046km coastline in the south that impacts its climate and agriculture.

Almost 90% to 97% of showers in Pakistan are received during summer monsoon season. Very few showers are received during winters. Droughts and floods formulate a permanent feature of the area. Pakistan receives seasonal showers due to which most of the agricultural land must be irrigated and agricultural output is largely affected by the climatic variations and global warming.

Total land area of Pakistan is 96.9% and 3.1% is constituted of water bodies. Total cropped area of Pakistan is 23.04 million hectors. 90% of the land is irrigated and only remaining 10% is rain fed. In Pakistan, Intensive Subsistence Farming is largely practiced Use of fertilizers and pesticides; and techniques of crop rotation are practiced widely in order to have larger yield. Among major crops of the country there is wet padi and wheat. Cash crops include cotton, sugarcane, maize, jute, tobacco, citrus fruits, mangoes etc. Almost 44% of the labor is involved in it and almost 64.5% of the population is still rural in nature. Due to 2010 floods, agriculture sector showed overall growth of 1.2% where as major crops showed negative growth of 4% during year 2010 – 2011.

Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan

Irrigation issues

Quite unfortunately, network of water channels existing in Pakistan has become redundant. Perennial canal system of irrigation, when formed, was a very efficient in 1960’s. But today, Pakistan is deprived of the modern ways of irrigation that is drip and sprinkle irrigation. A huge amount of water is lost due to seepage and evaporation. Moreover, due to problem of distribution of water in fields, farmers do not practice the standard water required in fields. Thus, this leads to mismanagement of water.

Water issues

In Pakistan, construction of water reservoirs has become a matter of political tussle. Due to which construction of dams has been in halt since last major project of Terbela. Indus Basin Treaty 1960 has failed to stop India from constructing water reservoirs on the channels flowing to Pakistan. However, Pakistan consistently failed to establish its view point on international forums. The present canal water is not effectively used in our irrigation system. 25% - 35% losses of water are recorded out of total applied to fields. Out of 142 MAF, total quantum of water available to crops is only 42 MAF. Due to shortage of canal water farmers have to use tube well water. This water is brackish and having higher concentration of different salts and enhances the problem of soil salinity.

Deforestation

Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is forested and rate of deforestation is around 3%. From northern highlands to the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan has diverse range of forests from coniferous to mangroves respectively. However, deforestation is the result of increased and unplanned urbanization. Therefore, expanding urban units grow at the cost of trees. This is not only causing environmental hazards, but also accentuating the impacts of global warming.

Absence of Land Reforms

During Ayub’s era, first time land reforms was practiced. Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced more reforms in 1972. The Law Reforms Act 1977 was also enforced by Bhutto’s regime. The most important change was that individual holdings, including shares in shamilat, if any, in excess of 100 acres of irrigated land or 200 acres of un-irrigated land. Furthermore, notwithstanding the above, no land holding could be greater than an area equivalent to 8,000 PIU. However, these laws were declared in contradiction to Islam and have ceased to be in effect since 1990. Thus, absence of land reforms has always caused a lot of damage to the agricultural sector of Pakistan.

Salinity and water logging

Due to excessive use of canal water, most of cultivated lands have become victims of these two dangerous diseases. Every year, salinity alone is turning about 100,000 acres of arable land into marches and salt lands. Water-logging is no less injurious. About 25% of the irrigated area of Pakistan is affected by water logging and salinity problems.

Lack of R&D and neglect in education & training of farmers

There are only five universities in Pakistan and around 15 research centers related to agriculture. Research conducted, techniques taught and skills imparted in these institutions rarely reach at the level of small farmers. Farmers need to know how to make optimum use of land. How to use fertilizers and pesticides and what amount of water is exactly useful and necessary for any crop. Techniques to fight water logging, old irrigation system and low yield must also be learnt. For instance, if take example of using fertilizers in Pakistan, per hector usage of NPK is 170 kg, but the recommended is 300 kg per hector. Hence, in fertilizer application problem is poor nutrition application and incorrect fertilizer case. Lack of management on the part of farmer is a huge problem.

International compulsions & inconsistent government policies

Pakistan fell back in to the clutches of IMF after the change of regime back in 2008. Since then IMF has told Pakistan to reduce agricultural subsidies and impose agriculture tax. Therefore, Pakistan fails to practice a long term policy whether of flexi loans, subsidies or of agriculture tax. Moreover, Pakistan is a WTO signatory as well; therefore, she has to follow those compulsions as well. In the wake of these challenges of international nature, farmer of Pakistan that is illiterate, less equipped, under trained and technologically poor can only rely on policies of government to protect and grow them. Therefore, weak and inconsistent policies of consecutive governments in Pakistan have caused serious problems to Pakistan’s agriculture sector.

Lack of accountability

The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from satisfactory level. Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover, the chain of middle men between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of their produce .Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too. Hoarding and smuggling has become a culture. Creating farce crisis and causing price hike has become a routine matter. That benefits only middle men; both producer and consumer suffer badly due to this. Lack of proper check and balance and accountability is a fundamental feature of lack of good governance in Pakistan. This is also effecting agriculture sector as well.

Infrastructural problems

The agricultural activities are to be performed in rural areas, but most of villages in Pakistan have no road or railway links with markets. So, farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products. Pakistan is also facing grain storage problems at large scale throughout the country. The people often store their grains in godowns, which cause time to time damage to the seed. Thus, hundreds of thousand of tones of crops have to be stored in temporary facilities that afforded inadequate protection and pilferage. The hazards may occur because of improper ventilation, lack of control over temperature and humidity, high moisture content in seeds, lack of control over rain due to broken walls, floors and ceilings, spoil and un-cleaned godowns, lack of spray and fumigation etc. That results in increase number of dormant seeds, sprouting and rotting, increase of insect damage and bird contamination.

Analysis

Pakistan is a cluster of more than 170 million people. Though Pakistan is the most urbanized country in South Asia, yet it is an agrarian economy. Fluctuating policies, influx of MNCs and private sector have forced the rural labor to find better economic opportunities in urban centers. But unfortunately, they have added to the poverty only. Pakistan is suffering from energy and water shortage and food inflation has been touching double figures. Realizing these ground realities Pakistan needs to look seriously in to its agricultural problems. 2010 floods played havoc with the agricultural lands. Changing climatic conditions; rise in temperature and changing patterns of rainfall are also adding to the agricultural problems. No matter how long lived and deep rooted are the problems of agriculture in Pakistan, they can be solved with due deliberation in to them.

It is the article of my respected sir from Jahangir World Times.Source Css Fourm

 

Published: Zarai Media Team

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