Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 31 Jan, 2015: Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6200 Gram Black 5600 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 10800 Moong Pulse 12000 Mash 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 12600 Masoor Pulse(local) 14800 Millet 3200 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 12000 Ginger(China) 11000 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2600 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8200 Cauliflower 1850 Peas 3400 Turnip 950 Radish 1150 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 7200 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 6400 Kinnow (100Pcs) 410 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16200 Musambi(100Pcs) 92 Cabbage 2200 Jaggery (گڑ) 7200 Mash Pulse(local) 14600 Gram White(Importedl) 7800 Ginger (Thai) 10500 Cucumber (Kheera) 4500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 6000 ¡ ArifWala Paddy Basmati 3813 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 14000 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 4750 Brinjal 3400 Cauliflower 2750 Peas 3400 Turnip 1350 Radish 900 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 8500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3250 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19000 Banola Cake 3259 Cabbage 2100 Cucumber (Kheera) 6250 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6250 Lemon (China) 5250 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 5198 Potato Fresh 1575 Onion 933 Garlic (China) 11550 Tomato 3500 Spinach 500 Brinjal 2830 Cauliflower 1488 Peas 2950 Turnip 1225 Radish 1088 Carrot 1288 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10400 Banana(DOZENS) 36 Guava 2488 Kinnow (100Pcs) 555 Cabbage 1488 Ginger (Thai) 10170 Cucumber (Kheera) 4538 Green Chilli 5538 Lemon (China) 5608 ¡ LalaMusa Wheat 3300 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7600 Sugar 5200 Gram White(local) 6000 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 14000 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13400 Maize 2200 Millet 2500 Potato Fresh 2000 Potato Store 1650 Onion 1850 Garlic (China) 12650 Tomato 4200 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 3200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20000 Cauliflower 2550 Peas 3450 Turnip 1700 Radish 1100 Carrot 2550 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 5000 Orange(100Pcs) 360 Kinnow (100Pcs) 350 Banola 2800 Banola Cake 2950 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10000 Musambi(100Pcs) 745 Cabbage 2390 Jaggery (گڑ) 6400 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Ginger (Thai) 12750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10700 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4050 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Lemon (Other) 4000 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5750 ¡ Gojra Potato Fresh 1553 Onion 1510 Garlic (China) 11662 Tomato 4025 Spinach 620 Cauliflower 1695 Peas 3358 Turnip 1105 Radish 1105 Carrot 1553 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11657 Apple (Golden) 6495 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 2458 Kinnow (100Pcs) 460 Cabbage 2458 Ginger (Thai) 9863 Green Chilli 4923 Lemon (China) 3360 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 1600 Onion 1600 Garlic (China) 13000 Tomato 4500 Spinach 450 Brinjal 3250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 12750 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 2750 Turnip 1350 Radish 500 Carrot 1750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 6750 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Orange(100Pcs) 610 Kinnow (100Pcs) 430 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Musambi(100Pcs) 715 Cabbage 1850 Cucumber (Kheera) 3550 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5500 Lemon (China) 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4250 ¡ RajanPur Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 1100 Tomato 3000 Brinjal 1800 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 3800 Turnip 1300 Radish 500 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11000 Apple (Golden) 5950 Guava 4650 Cabbage 1500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7000 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7200 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 5450 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong Pulse 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 14100 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 13250 Tomato 5150 Spinach 1050 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Cauliflower 1600 Peas 3100 Turnip 1000 Radish 550 Carrot 1250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 6400 Banana(DOZENS) 34 Guava 4150 Kinnow (100Pcs) 330 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 5900 Pomegranate(Badana) 20250 Cabbage 2000 Mash Pulse(local) 14100 Ginger (Thai) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6150 Green Chilli 6150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7150 Lemon (China) 1400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan - Future of Agriculture in Pakistan, Information about Agriculture, Pakistan Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan, Role of Agriculture, Agriculture in Pakistan Urdu, Pakistan Agricultural Research, Agriculture Statistics, Agriculture Constitutes, Agriculture News, Videos, Weather, Farming, Biotechnology, Livstock, Jobs & Scholarships, Agriculture Universities

Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan

The magnanimity of the agricultural problems in Pakistan has undoubtedly crippled the economy. In 1947, agriculture’s contribution of GDP was 53% that has shrunken down to 21% last year. Pakistan has great agricultural potential because of its alluvial soils. However, it is producing almost 50% below its potential. Neighboring India and Bangladesh have shown significant improvement in their agriculture sector unlike Pakistan. Where China is growing padi crops in Gobi desert, Pakistan is still relying on perennial canal system of irrigation. Let us make an attempt to study the agricultural profile of Pakistan followed by a brief discussion on problems in this sector.

Pakistan lies in a semi arid subtropical region. It is in the north east of the world; that is just above tropic of cancer i.e. 23.5oN. Its dimensions are 240 30’ N – 370 N and 610 E – 750 E approximately. Pakistan has 1046km coastline in the south that impacts its climate and agriculture.

Almost 90% to 97% of showers in Pakistan are received during summer monsoon season. Very few showers are received during winters. Droughts and floods formulate a permanent feature of the area. Pakistan receives seasonal showers due to which most of the agricultural land must be irrigated and agricultural output is largely affected by the climatic variations and global warming.

Total land area of Pakistan is 96.9% and 3.1% is constituted of water bodies. Total cropped area of Pakistan is 23.04 million hectors. 90% of the land is irrigated and only remaining 10% is rain fed. In Pakistan, Intensive Subsistence Farming is largely practiced Use of fertilizers and pesticides; and techniques of crop rotation are practiced widely in order to have larger yield. Among major crops of the country there is wet padi and wheat. Cash crops include cotton, sugarcane, maize, jute, tobacco, citrus fruits, mangoes etc. Almost 44% of the labor is involved in it and almost 64.5% of the population is still rural in nature. Due to 2010 floods, agriculture sector showed overall growth of 1.2% where as major crops showed negative growth of 4% during year 2010 – 2011.

Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan

Irrigation issues

Quite unfortunately, network of water channels existing in Pakistan has become redundant. Perennial canal system of irrigation, when formed, was a very efficient in 1960’s. But today, Pakistan is deprived of the modern ways of irrigation that is drip and sprinkle irrigation. A huge amount of water is lost due to seepage and evaporation. Moreover, due to problem of distribution of water in fields, farmers do not practice the standard water required in fields. Thus, this leads to mismanagement of water.

Water issues

In Pakistan, construction of water reservoirs has become a matter of political tussle. Due to which construction of dams has been in halt since last major project of Terbela. Indus Basin Treaty 1960 has failed to stop India from constructing water reservoirs on the channels flowing to Pakistan. However, Pakistan consistently failed to establish its view point on international forums. The present canal water is not effectively used in our irrigation system. 25% - 35% losses of water are recorded out of total applied to fields. Out of 142 MAF, total quantum of water available to crops is only 42 MAF. Due to shortage of canal water farmers have to use tube well water. This water is brackish and having higher concentration of different salts and enhances the problem of soil salinity.

Deforestation

Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is forested and rate of deforestation is around 3%. From northern highlands to the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan has diverse range of forests from coniferous to mangroves respectively. However, deforestation is the result of increased and unplanned urbanization. Therefore, expanding urban units grow at the cost of trees. This is not only causing environmental hazards, but also accentuating the impacts of global warming.

Absence of Land Reforms

During Ayub’s era, first time land reforms was practiced. Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced more reforms in 1972. The Law Reforms Act 1977 was also enforced by Bhutto’s regime. The most important change was that individual holdings, including shares in shamilat, if any, in excess of 100 acres of irrigated land or 200 acres of un-irrigated land. Furthermore, notwithstanding the above, no land holding could be greater than an area equivalent to 8,000 PIU. However, these laws were declared in contradiction to Islam and have ceased to be in effect since 1990. Thus, absence of land reforms has always caused a lot of damage to the agricultural sector of Pakistan.

Salinity and water logging

Due to excessive use of canal water, most of cultivated lands have become victims of these two dangerous diseases. Every year, salinity alone is turning about 100,000 acres of arable land into marches and salt lands. Water-logging is no less injurious. About 25% of the irrigated area of Pakistan is affected by water logging and salinity problems.

Lack of R&D and neglect in education & training of farmers

There are only five universities in Pakistan and around 15 research centers related to agriculture. Research conducted, techniques taught and skills imparted in these institutions rarely reach at the level of small farmers. Farmers need to know how to make optimum use of land. How to use fertilizers and pesticides and what amount of water is exactly useful and necessary for any crop. Techniques to fight water logging, old irrigation system and low yield must also be learnt. For instance, if take example of using fertilizers in Pakistan, per hector usage of NPK is 170 kg, but the recommended is 300 kg per hector. Hence, in fertilizer application problem is poor nutrition application and incorrect fertilizer case. Lack of management on the part of farmer is a huge problem.

International compulsions & inconsistent government policies

Pakistan fell back in to the clutches of IMF after the change of regime back in 2008. Since then IMF has told Pakistan to reduce agricultural subsidies and impose agriculture tax. Therefore, Pakistan fails to practice a long term policy whether of flexi loans, subsidies or of agriculture tax. Moreover, Pakistan is a WTO signatory as well; therefore, she has to follow those compulsions as well. In the wake of these challenges of international nature, farmer of Pakistan that is illiterate, less equipped, under trained and technologically poor can only rely on policies of government to protect and grow them. Therefore, weak and inconsistent policies of consecutive governments in Pakistan have caused serious problems to Pakistan’s agriculture sector.

Lack of accountability

The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from satisfactory level. Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover, the chain of middle men between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of their produce .Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too. Hoarding and smuggling has become a culture. Creating farce crisis and causing price hike has become a routine matter. That benefits only middle men; both producer and consumer suffer badly due to this. Lack of proper check and balance and accountability is a fundamental feature of lack of good governance in Pakistan. This is also effecting agriculture sector as well.

Infrastructural problems

The agricultural activities are to be performed in rural areas, but most of villages in Pakistan have no road or railway links with markets. So, farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products. Pakistan is also facing grain storage problems at large scale throughout the country. The people often store their grains in godowns, which cause time to time damage to the seed. Thus, hundreds of thousand of tones of crops have to be stored in temporary facilities that afforded inadequate protection and pilferage. The hazards may occur because of improper ventilation, lack of control over temperature and humidity, high moisture content in seeds, lack of control over rain due to broken walls, floors and ceilings, spoil and un-cleaned godowns, lack of spray and fumigation etc. That results in increase number of dormant seeds, sprouting and rotting, increase of insect damage and bird contamination.

Analysis

Pakistan is a cluster of more than 170 million people. Though Pakistan is the most urbanized country in South Asia, yet it is an agrarian economy. Fluctuating policies, influx of MNCs and private sector have forced the rural labor to find better economic opportunities in urban centers. But unfortunately, they have added to the poverty only. Pakistan is suffering from energy and water shortage and food inflation has been touching double figures. Realizing these ground realities Pakistan needs to look seriously in to its agricultural problems. 2010 floods played havoc with the agricultural lands. Changing climatic conditions; rise in temperature and changing patterns of rainfall are also adding to the agricultural problems. No matter how long lived and deep rooted are the problems of agriculture in Pakistan, they can be solved with due deliberation in to them.

It is the article of my respected sir from Jahangir World Times.Source Css Fourm

 

Published: Zarai Media Team

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