Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 22 Jan, 2015: Lahore Rice Basmati Super (New) 9000 Sugar 5120 Gram White(local) 5900 Gram Black 6900 Gram Pulse 6750 Moong 15000 Moong Pulse 16500 Mash 14500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Masoor Pulse(local) 15500 Maize 2500 Millet 2750 Sorghum 4050 RapeSeed (Torya) 7500 Potato Fresh 1900 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 13750 Ginger(China) 12550 Tomato 3500 Spinach 1550 Brinjal 5400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 13100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 11800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 10600 Tinda 3500 Cauliflower 1050 Peas 4700 Turnip 1050 Radish 950 Carrot 1350 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12650 Apple (Ammre) 6100 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Guava 5100 Orange(100Pcs) 540 Kinnow (100Pcs) 615 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Green Fodder 295 Wheat Straw 995 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12500 Pomegranate(Badana) 24600 Musambi(100Pcs) 1080 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 820 Cabbage 1950 Jaggery (گڑ) 6950 Mash Pulse(local) 17500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 11000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Garlic (Local) 14300 Cucumber (Kheera) 5400 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7150 Dates (Aseel) 15600 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6400 Lemon (China) 5100 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7100 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5400 ¡ Faisalabad Wheat 3388 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7250 Rice (IRRI) 3420 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 5750 Gram Black 6050 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 13625 Moong Pulse 14950 Mash 12000 Maize 2250 Millet 2475 RapeSeed (Torya) 6750 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1700 Garlic (China) 12850 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 3700 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 15800 Cauliflower 1200 Peas 3050 Turnip 1000 Radish 1000 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 9550 Apple (Golden) 6300 Apple (Ammre) 3950 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 3100 Orange(100Pcs) 650 Kinnow (100Pcs) 450 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 17600 Banola Cake 3500 Green Fodder 350 Wheat Straw 813 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11000 Rice Basmati (385) 5100 Pomegranate(Badana) 20500 Musambi(100Pcs) 650 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1450 Cabbage 1500 Jaggery (گڑ) 5500 Mash Pulse(local) 14125 Gram White(Importedl) 7000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Cucumber (Kheera) 5250 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 4800 Dates (Aseel) 12500 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5100 Lemon (China) 3300 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6688 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4800 ¡ Okara Wheat 3238 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7450 Rice (IRRI) 3550 Paddy Basmati 3538 Paddy (IRRI) 2000 Sugar 5110 Gram White(local) 6750 Gram Black 5850 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 12900 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 12550 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14250 Maize 2488 Millet 2400 Sorghum 5950 Potato Fresh 1600 Onion 1700 Garlic (China) 13750 Ginger(China) 11750 Tomato 4250 Spinach 800 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18000 Cauliflower 900 Peas 3000 Turnip 1150 Radish 800 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12250 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 46 Kinnow (100Pcs) 500 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 18000 Banola Cake 3150 Green Fodder 345 Wheat Straw 688 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11650 Rice Basmati (385) 5250 Musambi(100Pcs) 838 Cabbage 1700 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 9750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9550 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11550 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Green Chilli 5750 Lemon (China) 3750 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 ¡ Sargodha Wheat 3188 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7625 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 5875 Gram Black 5625 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong 12813 Moong Pulse 14875 Mash 11875 Mash Pulse(Imported) 15625 Masoor Whole(local) 10125 Masoor Pulse(local) 11000 Maize 2438 RapeSeed (Torya) 5375 Potato Fresh 1650 Onion 1400 Garlic (China) 13000 Ginger(China) 10500 Tomato 4050 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 2950 Cauliflower 1650 Peas 2350 Turnip 1500 Radish 1250 Carrot 1250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7350 Banana(DOZENS) 51 Guava 4250 Green Fodder 363 Wheat Straw 825 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11125 Musambi(100Pcs) 800 Cabbage 2300 Jaggery (گڑ) 6250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6550 Green Chilli 5750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6050 Lemon (China) 4750 ¡ Rawalpindi Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5170 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 6250 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 13250 Moong Pulse 14250 Mash 12500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13500 Maize 2375 Millet 2375 Sorghum 3125 RapeSeed (Torya) 6875 Potato Fresh 2150 Onion 2000 Garlic (China) 12800 Tomato 4700 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 3650 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17500 Tinda 2600 Pumpkin 2600 Cauliflower 1550 Peas 3300 Turnip 1450 Radish 1200 Carrot 1750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 8250 Apple (Golden) 6550 Apple (Ammre) 5000 Banana(DOZENS) 42 Guava 3950 Orange(100Pcs) 475 Kinnow (100Pcs) 275 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 15250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Pomegranate(Badana) 16950 Musambi(100Pcs) 525 Cabbage 1900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Ginger (Thai) 10600 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Garlic (Local) 12800 Cucumber (Kheera) 4850 Green Chilli 4550 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5050 Lemon (China) 5400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6850 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5000 ¡ Multan Wheat 3338 Rice Basmati Super (New) 5443 Rice (IRRI) 3113 Paddy Basmati 3688 Paddy (IRRI) 2063 Sugar 5065 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5200 Moong 9550 Moong Pulse 10650 Mash 11375 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13250 Maize 2375 Millet 2375 Sorghum 5375 RapeSeed (Torya) 5563 Potato Fresh 1700 Onion 1350 Garlic (China) 11750 Tomato 3300 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17875 Cauliflower 1300 Peas 3300 Turnip 700 Radish 700 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 4050 Orange(100Pcs) 325 Kinnow (100Pcs) 545 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 14950 Grapes (Other) 16000 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 6438 Banola 2714 Green Fodder 1050 Wheat Straw 1050 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 8750 Rice Basmati (385) 5063 Musambi(100Pcs) 565 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1350 Groundnut 13125 Cabbage 1300 Jaggery (گڑ) 5625 Gram White(Importedl) 6688 Ginger (Thai) 9500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10188 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11700 Garlic (Local) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4750 Melon 5500 Green Chilli 3300 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3500 ¡ Bhalwal Potato Fresh 1750 Onion 1750 Garlic (China) 16500 Ginger(China) 13500 Tomato 5500 Spinach 1250 Cauliflower 2250 Peas 2500 Turnip 2250 Radish 1250 Carrot 2250 Apple (Golden) 10500 Banana(DOZENS) 5500 Guava 4500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 4500 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 13500 Green Chilli 6500 ¡ Kasur Potato Fresh 1430 Onion 1520 Garlic (China) 13250 Ginger(China) 11667 Tomato 3460 Spinach 815 Brinjal 1875 Tinda 3215 Cauliflower 850 Peas 2286 Turnip 749 Radish 372 Carrot 940 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11182 Apple (Ammre) 5788 Banana(DOZENS) 51 Guava 3044 Orange(100Pcs) 530 Kinnow (100Pcs) 385 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16947 Pomegranate(Badana) 26575 Musambi(100Pcs) 892 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1759 Cabbage 1749 Garlic (Local) 12325 Cucumber (Kheera) 4260 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7004 Green Chilli 4090 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5825 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3250 ¡ Sahiwal Wheat 3319 Rice Basmati Super (New) 8650 Rice (IRRI) 3575 Paddy Basmati 3725 Paddy (IRRI) 1938 Sugar 4975 Gram White(local) 7250 Gram Black 6100 Gram Pulse 6350 Moong Pulse 14250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Masoor Pulse(local) 13750 Maize 2113 Millet 5375 Sorghum 2375 Potato Fresh 1900 Onion 1900 Garlic (China) 12500 Ginger(China) 13250 Tomato 3675 Spinach 650 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17500 Cauliflower 1075 Peas 3525 Turnip 1100 Radish 900 Carrot 1100 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11500 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Guava 3250 Orange(100Pcs) 350 Kinnow (100Pcs) 500 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 14500 Seed Cotton(Phutti) 5625 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 925 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11250 Musambi(100Pcs) 775 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1125 Cabbage 2625 Gram White(Importedl) 9675 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9650 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Cucumber (Kheera) 4350 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7650 Green Chilli 5200 Lemon (China) 3400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 ¡ Vehari Wheat 3200 Rice Basmati Super (New) 8950 Rice (IRRI) 3375 Paddy Basmati 3463 Paddy (IRRI) 2238 Sugar 5000 Gram White(local) 6950 Gram Black 6780 Gram Pulse 7463 Moong Pulse 15950 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14750 Masoor Whole(local) 11488 Masoor Pulse(local) 14900 Maize 2063 Millet 2475 RapeSeed (Torya) 5425 Potato Fresh 1700 Onion 900 Garlic (China) 14500 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Tunnel Farming: Low Cost High Tunnel Construction

Tunnel Farming: Low Cost High Tunnel Construction

Introduction

High tunnels are becoming increasingly popular for use by small farms who often market directly to consumers.  Although they have proven to be economically advantageous to farmers who wish to capitalize on high prices obtained either early or late in the growing season, permanent high tunnel structures do represent a significant capital investment.  The cost for a standard size tunnel, including plastic (two layers) and all the materials required for construction can range from $1.50-$2.50 per square foot without labor and freight charges.  This represents an initial investment of several thousand dollars, which is simply too much for some small farms.  Although most growers are able to pay for their tunnels within a few growing seasons, others cannot justify the investment.  For this reason, extension and research personnel at the University of Kentucky have been working on developing a low cost high tunnel covered with a single layer of plastic that can be assembled or moved in an afternoon.

Watch the High Tunnel Production and Low Cost Tunnel Construction Webinar »

This low cost high tunnel only provides about 3 oF in frost protection, compared to 7 oF for a double poly tunnel. This tunnel design has proven to withstand 60 mph winds with little damage in central and western KY.   This tunnel will not withstand much more than a very light snow event (<1 inch), however it is not meant to be used through the winter in parts of the country that receive significant snowfall.  The best time to use this tunnel is for a few months in early spring and mid-fall that receive low daily temperatures and mild frosts.  Demonstrations in Central and Eastern KY have shown that growers can reach the market up to three-four weeks earlier with tomatoes grown in this tunnel than in the field.  The added income from these early tomatoes more than offsets the initial costs.

Additional benefits from this type of design include the ability to make the tunnel as long as is necessary. Because much of the labor is in constructing the endwalls, there is not as much difference in labor costs for constructing a 300 foot long tunnel compared to a 100 foot long tunnel. Obviously materials costs are more, but it allows flexibility for the grower depending on market conditions. Another positive for organic growers in particular is the ability to easily disassemble the tunnel and move it from one location to another.  One of the central tenets of organic agriculture is the idea of crop rotation. Unfortunately with some of the more permanent high tunnel structures proper rotation is difficult. Often growers find themselves growing the same crop in the same location for many years.  Failure to rotate annual crops does not comply with organic requirements, and in many cases results in high levels of soil-borne diseases.  Organic growers in particular have had to adapt to find creative ways to deal with these diseases, including grafting of resistant rootstocks, biofumigants, and soil solarization.  Being able to quickly move a tunnel allows growers to easily rotate and avoids many of these problems. The following are step-by-step instructions on how to assemble this type of tunnel. This design is constantly being modified to find the most economical use of money and labor while still providing a sturdy useful structure. Below is a detailed outline on how to construct this tunnel.

Constructing the high tunnel

In this tunnel we have already laid plastic in the field and transplanted.  By assembling the tunnel over the already formed beds we can use traditional tractor mounted bedshapers and transplanters, saving the need for specialized equipment.  Here anchors are made from one inch diameter pieces of steel pipe 18 inches in length with a single turn of auger flight welded to the end.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

These anchors are placed on eight foot centers the entire length of the tunnel.  Generally they are spaced 12 feet apart, which is enough to easily cover two beds made on six foot centers.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

The anchors are then augured into the ground with a small hydraulic driven motor which can be hooked to a tractor.  Anchors are driven into the ground so that the "hook" that is welded on the side is just at the soil level.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Then 1.5 inch schedule 40 pvc pipe is placed over the anchors. Typically pipe  can be purchased in 20 foot lengths. A 20 foot pipe will form a tunnel 12 feet wide at the based with a center height of just over six feet.  Pipes should be painted with a latex paint.  Experience has shown that non-painted pipe may cause  plastic to degrade where it comes in contact with the pipe.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Endwalls were constructed the previous season.  These are made from 2x4 lumber and have a number of aluminum channels attached to them for fastening plastic.  They are quickly put in place and attached to the end loops.  In addition, ropes are run from either side of the door to anchors that are sunk deep into the ground. Mobile home anchors are inexpensive and work well for this purpose.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

A lightweight metal pipe is then attached to each bow using aluminum cross connectors. A typical source of pipe would be the top rail for a chain link fence. This pipe is very important as it gives the entire tunnel rigidity. Demonstration plots showed that tunnels with the center pipe withstood very strong (60 mph) wind gusts while those without the pipe did not.  The rigid pipe also helps shed water after rains.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Ropes are then attached to anchors at each end and attached to the first three bows on either end in crisscross fashion. These ropes help tighten the tunnel and improve end-wall stability.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Plastic is then unrolled and pulled over the house. Because the plastic is meant to be removed during the winter months, a lighter weight (4 millimeter) plastic can be used if desired.  However, 6 millimeter plastic has shown to be able to withstand wind to a much greater extent than 4 millimeter in central KY.  Once pulled over the hoops, the ends of the plastic are attached to the endwalls using "wiggle wire" put into the pre-fastened channels (shown in the far right photo). Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Then nylon rope is fed back and forth over the plastic attaching to the hooks that were welded on the side of the anchors. The rope is sent down the tunnel and attached to every other hook then it is brought back up the tunnel and attached to the remaining hooks.  The rope is twisted at each hook so that the rope can be easily tightened as needed. By using the rope to hold the plastic cover down, one does not have to permanently affix the plastic to any base. Therefore when warm weather strikes the plastic can be pulled up on each side easily venting the crop inside. In fact, this type of structure was used to grow organic colored bell peppers during the summer in Lexington, KY.  It served to keep rain off of the peppers, reducing fruit rot and the spread of bacterial spot of pepper.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Total assembly time for a 160 foot long tunnel from start to finish can be done with 2-3 people in about 3-6 hours, depending on experience level.  The end walls would take an individual about 2 hours each to build.  While these tunnels only give about 2-3 oF of frost protection alone-more if an additional layer of plastic or remay is placed in the tunnel, they effectively increase the number of hours above 50 oF when used in spring. Thus they promote rapid growth and early fruit when used for tomatoes.  Above is a picture taken on June 20, 2008, in the mountain region of East KY. The plastic had been removed, but one can easily see the difference in growth and fruit set on the tomatoes 'Mt. Crest' planted in the tunnel and those outside the tunnel. Both were planted on the same day in late April 2008.  While not for everyone, these inexpensive tunnels can give growers a jump on the season without a large investment of capital.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

Published in ZaraiMedia.com

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