Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 22, April 2014: Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg ¡ Lahore Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Sugar 5040 Gram White(local) 6300 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong 13250 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Maize 2150 Millet 2500 Sorghum 3000 RapeSeed (Torya) 6500 Potato Fresh 5300 Potato Store 4300 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10200 Ginger(China) 25500 Tomato 3500 Spinach 1050 Brinjal 1450 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4350 Tinda 4300 Pumpkin 1350 Cauliflower 3300 Peas 7700 Turnip 1650 Radish 1550 Carrot 2300 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12550 Apple (Ammre) 7450 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Guava 4400 Orange(100Pcs) 1060 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1230 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 21000 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 1213 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14750 Pomegranate(Badana) 31000 Musambi(100Pcs) 1530 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2900 Cabbage 1350 Jaggery (گڑ) 6200 Mash Pulse(local) 12500 Ginger (Thai) 22800 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8900 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12500 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1350 Melon 4500 Watermelon 2400 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7450 Strawberry 9200 Dates (Aseel) 13550 Green Chilli 4200 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1550 Lemon (China) 9250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 ¡ Faisalabad Wheat 3719 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 3688 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 5500 Gram Black 5300 Gram Pulse 5375 Moong 12500 Moong Pulse 13750 Mash 9500 Maize 2438 Millet 2613 RapeSeed (Torya) 6000 Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2750 Garlic (China) 9550 Ginger(China) 25350 Tomato 2900 Spinach 800 Brinjal 1500 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 14750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2300 Tinda 6850 Pumpkin 800 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 6500 Radish 1000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11300 Apple (Golden) 5750 Apple (Ammre) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Guava 4500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1200 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 28350 Banola Cake 2475 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 888 Rice Basmati (385) 7125 Pomegranate(Badana) 24350 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1400 Cabbage 1000 Jaggery (گڑ) 5188 Mash Pulse(local) 11125 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9400 Garlic (Local) 5700 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 4800 Watermelon 3800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6250 Strawberry 9550 Dates (Aseel) 13500 Green Chilli 3550 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 7750 ¡ Okara Rice Basmati Super (New) 11750 Rice (IRRI) 3750 Paddy Basmati 5338 Paddy (IRRI) 2150 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 6750 Gram Black 5450 Gram Pulse 5650 Moong 11750 Moong Pulse 13250 Mash 10250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12750 Maize 2388 Millet 2513 Sorghum 6700 Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2550 Garlic (China) 10750 Ginger(China) 24750 Tomato 3350 Spinach 650 Brinjal 1700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16375 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Tinda 7250 Cauliflower 3400 Peas 7250 Carrot 3750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11750 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Banola Cake 3400 Green Fodder 315 Wheat Straw 1025 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12750 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Cabbage 1100 Jaggery (گڑ) 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11550 Garlic (Local) 5250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 3750 Watermelon 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Strawberry 10500 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Lemon (Desi) 18500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2900 ¡ Bhakhar Wheat 2975 Sugar 5000 Gram White(local) 4550 Gram Black 4450 Gram Pulse 6450 Moong 10750 Moong Pulse 16475 Masoor Pulse(local) 15475 Maize 3450 Millet 2475 Potato Fresh 4875 Onion 1975 Garlic (China) 9975 Tomato 2675 Spinach 775 Brinjal 1175 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16950 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7175 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3375 Tinda 1175 Pumpkin 1275 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10375 Apple (Golden) 6975 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 4175 Kinnow (100Pcs) 6380 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5975 Mash Pulse(local) 11450 Ginger (Thai) 19475 Garlic (Local) 3375 Cucumber (Kheera) 1075 Watermelon 1775 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1175 Lemon (China) 4975 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1125 ¡ Vehari Wheat 2938 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12250 Rice (IRRI) 3250 Paddy Basmati 5125 Paddy (IRRI) 2125 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 7750 Gram Black 4750 Gram Pulse 5150 Moong Pulse 10500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11750 Masoor Whole(local) 8800 Masoor Pulse(local) 10500 Maize 2375 Millet 2438 Potato Fresh 4500 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 12150 Tomato 2400 Spinach 900 Brinjal 900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2700 Tinda 5950 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 2150 Peas 4650 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12900 Apple (Ammre) 5600 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 2850 Green Fodder 293 Wheat Straw 725 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12550 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 900 Mash Pulse(local) 9275 Gram White(Importedl) 8250 Ginger (Thai) 21500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9800 Garlic (Local) 5850 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 5150 Watermelon 2000 Strawberry 10350 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1950 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5275 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2350 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 6000 ¡ Layyah Wheat 3000 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9250 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 5100 Gram Black 4550 Gram Pulse 5750 Masoor Pulse(local) 10250 Millet 2300 Potato Fresh 5400 Onion 2250 Garlic (China) 12250 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 500 Brinjal 2100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2100 Tinda 700 Pumpkin 1650 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12000 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 4750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 360 Banola Cake 3350 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 700 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10750 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 700 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Mash Pulse(local) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4750 Watermelon 1900 Strawberry 14500 Green Chilli 4250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2100 Lemon (Desi) 22500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5000 ¡ MuzafarGhar Potato Fresh 5200 Onion 8800 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 19300 Tomato 2600 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 850 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1900 Tinda 4000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11800 Banana(DOZENS) 57 Guava 4000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 3900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 850 ¡ TTSingh Potato Fresh 4670 Onion 2510 Garlic (China) 10790 Ginger(China) 19790 Tomato 3140 Spinach 890 Brinjal 1790 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5840 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3230 Tinda 8990 Cauliflower 2510 Peas 7190 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10340 Apple (Golden) 6290 Apple (Ammre) 5390 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 3140 Banola Cake 2710 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1430 Ginger (Thai) 19790 Garlic (Local) 8990 Cucumber (Kheera) 1430 Melon 4490 Watermelon 1790 Strawberry 12490 Green Chilli 4490 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1790 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2240 ¡ ArifWala Wheat 3013 Rice Basmati Super (New) 14750 Rice (IRRI) 3775 Paddy Basmati 5031 Paddy (IRRI) 2688 Sugar 4920 Gram White(local) 9025 Gram Black 5225 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 11250 Moong Pulse 14000 Mash 10250 Masoor Whole(local) 10250 Masoor Pulse(local) 11000 Maize 2438 Millet 2469 RapeSeed (Torya) 5950 Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2300 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 3250 Brinjal 1100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 11000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3800 Tinda 6500 Peas 7500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Guava 2750 Banola Cake 2545 Wheat Straw 525 Rice Basmati (385) 7550 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 5500 Watermelon 2750 Strawberry 13000 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1500 Lemon (China) 12500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6100 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2100 ¡ Lodhran Potato Fresh 5018 Onion 2376 Garlic (China) 10000 Tomato 2575 Spinach 800 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Pumpkin 1400 Peas 6000 Apple (Golden) 9643 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Cabbage 5857 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 7000 Cucumber (Kheera) 900 Melon 2938 Watermelon 1625 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12143 Strawberry 8500 Green Chilli 4100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3000 Lemon (Desi) 20000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4271 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 4845 Potato Fresh 5325 Onion 2113 Garlic (China) 11400 Tomato 2633 Spinach 988 Brinjal 1268 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6675 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2283 Tinda 7463 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11050 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 2438 Cabbage 1385 Garlic (Local) 5875 Cucumber (Kheera) 975 Melon 3650 Watermelon 1963 Green Chilli 5083 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2450 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1675 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3385 ¡ MandiBahaudin Wheat 3100 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9850 Paddy Basmati 5450 Sugar 5025 Masoor Whole(local) 7450 Maize 2350 Millet 2450 RapeSeed (Torya) 5900 Potato Fresh 4900 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 3250 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 2000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8850 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Cauliflower 2250 Peas 7050 Radish 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12800 Apple (Golden) 8800 Apple (Ammre) 7050 Banana(DOZENS) 71 Guava 6050 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1230 Banola 3350 Banola Cake 3450 Cabbage 1600 Jaggery (گڑ) 5900 Cucumber (Kheera) 1150 Melon 4050 Strawberry 10250 Green Chilli 5050 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1750 Lemon (China) 7050 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2000 ¡ Kamalia Wheat 3813 Paddy Basmati 5125 Maize 2188 Sorghum 6250 Potato Fresh 4500 Onion 2250 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3500 Spinach 700 Brinjal 1800 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Tinda 9000 Apple (Golden) 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Guava 2750 Cabbage 1200 Jaggery (گڑ) 5250 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 5500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1250 Melon 2250 Watermelon 2000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11000 Green Chilli 3250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 ¡ PirMahal Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2400 Ginger(China) 19400 Tomato 3400 Spinach 570 Brinjal 1575 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7275 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2975 Cauliflower 2500 Apple (Golden) 6290 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 3000 Garlic (Local) 6200 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Melon 4270 Watermelon 2165 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10500 Green Chilli 2200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2190 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 3188 Rice (IRRI) 4450 Sugar 5075 Gram White(local) 4050 Gram Black 4900 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 13500 Mash 11250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 8875 Maize 2550 Potato Fresh 5450 Onion 3100 Ginger(China) 9300 Tomato 3300 Spinach 1700 Brinjal 1850 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 13250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7050 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3550 Tinda 1250 Cauliflower 2000 Peas 6550 Radish 2050 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 8900 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 6300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 925 Banola 3750 Banola Cake 2900 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Musambi(100Pcs) 425 Cabbage 1950 Jaggery (گڑ) 6650 Mash Pulse(local) 2625 Ginger (Thai) 24250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11625 Cucumber (Kheera) 7430 Green Chilli 3150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1750 Lemon (Desi) 15500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Sweet Musk Melon 4900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3100 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 5500 Potato Store 5100 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 3700 Spinach 850 Brinjal 1500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2700 Tinda 900 Cauliflower 2500 Peas 7250 Turnip 1700 Radish 1150 Carrot 2500 Apple (Ammre) 5350 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 6250 Kinnow (100Pcs) 850 Cabbage 1350 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 5250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Melon 3000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Strawberry 11750 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Lemon (China) 11000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 ¡ SadiqAbad Wheat 3038 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 3400 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Black 6000 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong Pulse 12600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11000 Masoor Whole(local) 9000 Millet 2900 RapeSeed (Torya) 5738 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17500 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14000 Rice Basmati (385) 7000 Mash Pulse(local) 11000 Gram White(Importedl) 9500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 ¡ Mamukangan Potato Fresh 5750 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 10500 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 1500 Cauliflower 1700 Peas 5500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 8250 Apple (Ammre) 6250 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 2750 Cabbage 1300 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1500 Lemon (China) 5750 ¡ Shorkot Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2175 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 22950 Tomato 3000 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 1900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7950 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 8125 Cauliflower 2450 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 68 Guava 4000 Cabbage 1375 Cucumber (Kheera) 1525 Melon 5000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Green Chilli 2500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1775 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 10500 Gram Pulse 5250 Moong 10750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11500 Potato Store 5750 Onion 2600 Garlic (China) 11500 Ginger(China) 25500 Tomato 2250 Spinach 700 Brinjal 2250 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 15300 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Apple (Golden) 11500 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Guava 3750 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11500 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 2250 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11100 Cucumber (Kheera) 1250 Melon 25000 Watermelon 2750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Green Chilli 4500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2600 ¡ Jauharabad Wheat 3050 Rice (IRRI) 4250 Paddy Basmati 5500 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 7600 Gram Black 4450 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 9875 Moong Pulse 12250 Mash 10250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11750 Masoor Whole(local) 11250 Maize 2625 Millet 2500 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 5875 Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2700 Garlic (China) 9100 Tomato 3400 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1300 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3100 Tinda 1100 Pumpkin 1800 Cauliflower 1800 Apple (Golden) 7300 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4100 Banola Cake 3579 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Mash Pulse(local) 10750 Gram White(Importedl) 9750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9800 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4500 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1300 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2000 FUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Tunnel Farming: Low Cost High Tunnel Construction

Tunnel Farming: Low Cost High Tunnel Construction

Introduction

High tunnels are becoming increasingly popular for use by small farms who often market directly to consumers.  Although they have proven to be economically advantageous to farmers who wish to capitalize on high prices obtained either early or late in the growing season, permanent high tunnel structures do represent a significant capital investment.  The cost for a standard size tunnel, including plastic (two layers) and all the materials required for construction can range from $1.50-$2.50 per square foot without labor and freight charges.  This represents an initial investment of several thousand dollars, which is simply too much for some small farms.  Although most growers are able to pay for their tunnels within a few growing seasons, others cannot justify the investment.  For this reason, extension and research personnel at the University of Kentucky have been working on developing a low cost high tunnel covered with a single layer of plastic that can be assembled or moved in an afternoon.

Watch the High Tunnel Production and Low Cost Tunnel Construction Webinar »

This low cost high tunnel only provides about 3 oF in frost protection, compared to 7 oF for a double poly tunnel. This tunnel design has proven to withstand 60 mph winds with little damage in central and western KY.   This tunnel will not withstand much more than a very light snow event (<1 inch), however it is not meant to be used through the winter in parts of the country that receive significant snowfall.  The best time to use this tunnel is for a few months in early spring and mid-fall that receive low daily temperatures and mild frosts.  Demonstrations in Central and Eastern KY have shown that growers can reach the market up to three-four weeks earlier with tomatoes grown in this tunnel than in the field.  The added income from these early tomatoes more than offsets the initial costs.

Additional benefits from this type of design include the ability to make the tunnel as long as is necessary. Because much of the labor is in constructing the endwalls, there is not as much difference in labor costs for constructing a 300 foot long tunnel compared to a 100 foot long tunnel. Obviously materials costs are more, but it allows flexibility for the grower depending on market conditions. Another positive for organic growers in particular is the ability to easily disassemble the tunnel and move it from one location to another.  One of the central tenets of organic agriculture is the idea of crop rotation. Unfortunately with some of the more permanent high tunnel structures proper rotation is difficult. Often growers find themselves growing the same crop in the same location for many years.  Failure to rotate annual crops does not comply with organic requirements, and in many cases results in high levels of soil-borne diseases.  Organic growers in particular have had to adapt to find creative ways to deal with these diseases, including grafting of resistant rootstocks, biofumigants, and soil solarization.  Being able to quickly move a tunnel allows growers to easily rotate and avoids many of these problems. The following are step-by-step instructions on how to assemble this type of tunnel. This design is constantly being modified to find the most economical use of money and labor while still providing a sturdy useful structure. Below is a detailed outline on how to construct this tunnel.

Constructing the high tunnel

In this tunnel we have already laid plastic in the field and transplanted.  By assembling the tunnel over the already formed beds we can use traditional tractor mounted bedshapers and transplanters, saving the need for specialized equipment.  Here anchors are made from one inch diameter pieces of steel pipe 18 inches in length with a single turn of auger flight welded to the end.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

These anchors are placed on eight foot centers the entire length of the tunnel.  Generally they are spaced 12 feet apart, which is enough to easily cover two beds made on six foot centers.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

The anchors are then augured into the ground with a small hydraulic driven motor which can be hooked to a tractor.  Anchors are driven into the ground so that the "hook" that is welded on the side is just at the soil level.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Then 1.5 inch schedule 40 pvc pipe is placed over the anchors. Typically pipe  can be purchased in 20 foot lengths. A 20 foot pipe will form a tunnel 12 feet wide at the based with a center height of just over six feet.  Pipes should be painted with a latex paint.  Experience has shown that non-painted pipe may cause  plastic to degrade where it comes in contact with the pipe.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Endwalls were constructed the previous season.  These are made from 2x4 lumber and have a number of aluminum channels attached to them for fastening plastic.  They are quickly put in place and attached to the end loops.  In addition, ropes are run from either side of the door to anchors that are sunk deep into the ground. Mobile home anchors are inexpensive and work well for this purpose.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

A lightweight metal pipe is then attached to each bow using aluminum cross connectors. A typical source of pipe would be the top rail for a chain link fence. This pipe is very important as it gives the entire tunnel rigidity. Demonstration plots showed that tunnels with the center pipe withstood very strong (60 mph) wind gusts while those without the pipe did not.  The rigid pipe also helps shed water after rains.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Ropes are then attached to anchors at each end and attached to the first three bows on either end in crisscross fashion. These ropes help tighten the tunnel and improve end-wall stability.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Plastic is then unrolled and pulled over the house. Because the plastic is meant to be removed during the winter months, a lighter weight (4 millimeter) plastic can be used if desired.  However, 6 millimeter plastic has shown to be able to withstand wind to a much greater extent than 4 millimeter in central KY.  Once pulled over the hoops, the ends of the plastic are attached to the endwalls using "wiggle wire" put into the pre-fastened channels (shown in the far right photo). Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Then nylon rope is fed back and forth over the plastic attaching to the hooks that were welded on the side of the anchors. The rope is sent down the tunnel and attached to every other hook then it is brought back up the tunnel and attached to the remaining hooks.  The rope is twisted at each hook so that the rope can be easily tightened as needed. By using the rope to hold the plastic cover down, one does not have to permanently affix the plastic to any base. Therefore when warm weather strikes the plastic can be pulled up on each side easily venting the crop inside. In fact, this type of structure was used to grow organic colored bell peppers during the summer in Lexington, KY.  It served to keep rain off of the peppers, reducing fruit rot and the spread of bacterial spot of pepper.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Total assembly time for a 160 foot long tunnel from start to finish can be done with 2-3 people in about 3-6 hours, depending on experience level.  The end walls would take an individual about 2 hours each to build.  While these tunnels only give about 2-3 oF of frost protection alone-more if an additional layer of plastic or remay is placed in the tunnel, they effectively increase the number of hours above 50 oF when used in spring. Thus they promote rapid growth and early fruit when used for tomatoes.  Above is a picture taken on June 20, 2008, in the mountain region of East KY. The plastic had been removed, but one can easily see the difference in growth and fruit set on the tomatoes 'Mt. Crest' planted in the tunnel and those outside the tunnel. Both were planted on the same day in late April 2008.  While not for everyone, these inexpensive tunnels can give growers a jump on the season without a large investment of capital.  Photo credit: Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

Published in ZaraiMedia.com

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