Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 22, April 2014: Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg ¡ Lahore Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Sugar 5040 Gram White(local) 6300 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong 13250 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11000 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12500 Maize 2150 Millet 2500 Sorghum 3000 RapeSeed (Torya) 6500 Potato Fresh 5300 Potato Store 4300 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10200 Ginger(China) 25500 Tomato 3500 Spinach 1050 Brinjal 1450 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 18500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 4350 Tinda 4300 Pumpkin 1350 Cauliflower 3300 Peas 7700 Turnip 1650 Radish 1550 Carrot 2300 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12550 Apple (Ammre) 7450 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Guava 4400 Orange(100Pcs) 1060 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1230 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 21000 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 1213 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14750 Pomegranate(Badana) 31000 Musambi(100Pcs) 1530 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 2900 Cabbage 1350 Jaggery (گڑ) 6200 Mash Pulse(local) 12500 Ginger (Thai) 22800 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8900 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12500 Garlic (Local) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1350 Melon 4500 Watermelon 2400 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7450 Strawberry 9200 Dates (Aseel) 13550 Green Chilli 4200 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1550 Lemon (China) 9250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 ¡ Faisalabad Wheat 3719 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 3688 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 5500 Gram Black 5300 Gram Pulse 5375 Moong 12500 Moong Pulse 13750 Mash 9500 Maize 2438 Millet 2613 RapeSeed (Torya) 6000 Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2750 Garlic (China) 9550 Ginger(China) 25350 Tomato 2900 Spinach 800 Brinjal 1500 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 14750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2300 Tinda 6850 Pumpkin 800 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 6500 Radish 1000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11300 Apple (Golden) 5750 Apple (Ammre) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 58 Guava 4500 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1200 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 28350 Banola Cake 2475 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 888 Rice Basmati (385) 7125 Pomegranate(Badana) 24350 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1400 Cabbage 1000 Jaggery (گڑ) 5188 Mash Pulse(local) 11125 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9400 Garlic (Local) 5700 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 4800 Watermelon 3800 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6250 Strawberry 9550 Dates (Aseel) 13500 Green Chilli 3550 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 7750 ¡ Okara Rice Basmati Super (New) 11750 Rice (IRRI) 3750 Paddy Basmati 5338 Paddy (IRRI) 2150 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 6750 Gram Black 5450 Gram Pulse 5650 Moong 11750 Moong Pulse 13250 Mash 10250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12750 Maize 2388 Millet 2513 Sorghum 6700 Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2550 Garlic (China) 10750 Ginger(China) 24750 Tomato 3350 Spinach 650 Brinjal 1700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16375 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3750 Tinda 7250 Cauliflower 3400 Peas 7250 Carrot 3750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11750 Apple (Golden) 7250 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Banola Cake 3400 Green Fodder 315 Wheat Straw 1025 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12750 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Cabbage 1100 Jaggery (گڑ) 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11550 Garlic (Local) 5250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 3750 Watermelon 2500 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 8750 Strawberry 10500 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Lemon (Desi) 18500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2900 ¡ Bhakhar Wheat 2975 Sugar 5000 Gram White(local) 4550 Gram Black 4450 Gram Pulse 6450 Moong 10750 Moong Pulse 16475 Masoor Pulse(local) 15475 Maize 3450 Millet 2475 Potato Fresh 4875 Onion 1975 Garlic (China) 9975 Tomato 2675 Spinach 775 Brinjal 1175 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16950 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7175 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3375 Tinda 1175 Pumpkin 1275 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10375 Apple (Golden) 6975 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 4175 Kinnow (100Pcs) 6380 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5975 Mash Pulse(local) 11450 Ginger (Thai) 19475 Garlic (Local) 3375 Cucumber (Kheera) 1075 Watermelon 1775 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1175 Lemon (China) 4975 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1125 ¡ Vehari Wheat 2938 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12250 Rice (IRRI) 3250 Paddy Basmati 5125 Paddy (IRRI) 2125 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 7750 Gram Black 4750 Gram Pulse 5150 Moong Pulse 10500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11750 Masoor Whole(local) 8800 Masoor Pulse(local) 10500 Maize 2375 Millet 2438 Potato Fresh 4500 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 12150 Tomato 2400 Spinach 900 Brinjal 900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2700 Tinda 5950 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 2150 Peas 4650 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12900 Apple (Ammre) 5600 Banana(DOZENS) 48 Guava 2850 Green Fodder 293 Wheat Straw 725 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12550 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 900 Mash Pulse(local) 9275 Gram White(Importedl) 8250 Ginger (Thai) 21500 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9800 Garlic (Local) 5850 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 5150 Watermelon 2000 Strawberry 10350 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1950 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5275 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2350 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 6000 ¡ Layyah Wheat 3000 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9250 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 5100 Gram Black 4550 Gram Pulse 5750 Masoor Pulse(local) 10250 Millet 2300 Potato Fresh 5400 Onion 2250 Garlic (China) 12250 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 500 Brinjal 2100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2100 Tinda 700 Pumpkin 1650 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12000 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 4750 Kinnow (100Pcs) 360 Banola Cake 3350 Green Fodder 225 Wheat Straw 700 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10750 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 700 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Mash Pulse(local) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4750 Watermelon 1900 Strawberry 14500 Green Chilli 4250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2100 Lemon (Desi) 22500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5750 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 5000 ¡ MuzafarGhar Potato Fresh 5200 Onion 8800 Garlic (China) 10000 Ginger(China) 19300 Tomato 2600 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 850 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6250 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1900 Tinda 4000 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11800 Banana(DOZENS) 57 Guava 4000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 3900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 850 ¡ TTSingh Potato Fresh 4670 Onion 2510 Garlic (China) 10790 Ginger(China) 19790 Tomato 3140 Spinach 890 Brinjal 1790 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5840 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3230 Tinda 8990 Cauliflower 2510 Peas 7190 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10340 Apple (Golden) 6290 Apple (Ammre) 5390 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 3140 Banola Cake 2710 Grapefruit(100Pcs) 1430 Ginger (Thai) 19790 Garlic (Local) 8990 Cucumber (Kheera) 1430 Melon 4490 Watermelon 1790 Strawberry 12490 Green Chilli 4490 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1790 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2240 ¡ ArifWala Wheat 3013 Rice Basmati Super (New) 14750 Rice (IRRI) 3775 Paddy Basmati 5031 Paddy (IRRI) 2688 Sugar 4920 Gram White(local) 9025 Gram Black 5225 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 11250 Moong Pulse 14000 Mash 10250 Masoor Whole(local) 10250 Masoor Pulse(local) 11000 Maize 2438 Millet 2469 RapeSeed (Torya) 5950 Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2300 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 3250 Brinjal 1100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 11000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3800 Tinda 6500 Peas 7500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14500 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Guava 2750 Banola Cake 2545 Wheat Straw 525 Rice Basmati (385) 7550 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1100 Melon 5500 Watermelon 2750 Strawberry 13000 Green Chilli 4750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1500 Lemon (China) 12500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6100 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2100 ¡ Lodhran Potato Fresh 5018 Onion 2376 Garlic (China) 10000 Tomato 2575 Spinach 800 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 5750 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Pumpkin 1400 Peas 6000 Apple (Golden) 9643 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Cabbage 5857 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 7000 Cucumber (Kheera) 900 Melon 2938 Watermelon 1625 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12143 Strawberry 8500 Green Chilli 4100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3000 Lemon (Desi) 20000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4271 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 4845 Potato Fresh 5325 Onion 2113 Garlic (China) 11400 Tomato 2633 Spinach 988 Brinjal 1268 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 6675 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2283 Tinda 7463 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11050 Banana(DOZENS) 45 Guava 2438 Cabbage 1385 Garlic (Local) 5875 Cucumber (Kheera) 975 Melon 3650 Watermelon 1963 Green Chilli 5083 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 2450 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1675 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 3385 ¡ MandiBahaudin Wheat 3100 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9850 Paddy Basmati 5450 Sugar 5025 Masoor Whole(local) 7450 Maize 2350 Millet 2450 RapeSeed (Torya) 5900 Potato Fresh 4900 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 3250 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 2000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8850 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Cauliflower 2250 Peas 7050 Radish 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12800 Apple (Golden) 8800 Apple (Ammre) 7050 Banana(DOZENS) 71 Guava 6050 Kinnow (100Pcs) 1230 Banola 3350 Banola Cake 3450 Cabbage 1600 Jaggery (گڑ) 5900 Cucumber (Kheera) 1150 Melon 4050 Strawberry 10250 Green Chilli 5050 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1750 Lemon (China) 7050 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2000 ¡ Kamalia Wheat 3813 Paddy Basmati 5125 Maize 2188 Sorghum 6250 Potato Fresh 4500 Onion 2250 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3500 Spinach 700 Brinjal 1800 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 8500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Tinda 9000 Apple (Golden) 5500 Banana(DOZENS) 40 Guava 2750 Cabbage 1200 Jaggery (گڑ) 5250 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 5500 Cucumber (Kheera) 1250 Melon 2250 Watermelon 2000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11000 Green Chilli 3250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 ¡ PirMahal Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2400 Ginger(China) 19400 Tomato 3400 Spinach 570 Brinjal 1575 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7275 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2975 Cauliflower 2500 Apple (Golden) 6290 Banana(DOZENS) 52 Guava 3000 Garlic (Local) 6200 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Melon 4270 Watermelon 2165 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 10500 Green Chilli 2200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2190 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 3188 Rice (IRRI) 4450 Sugar 5075 Gram White(local) 4050 Gram Black 4900 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 13500 Mash 11250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 8875 Maize 2550 Potato Fresh 5450 Onion 3100 Ginger(China) 9300 Tomato 3300 Spinach 1700 Brinjal 1850 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 13250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7050 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3550 Tinda 1250 Cauliflower 2000 Peas 6550 Radish 2050 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 8900 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Guava 6300 Kinnow (100Pcs) 925 Banola 3750 Banola Cake 2900 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Musambi(100Pcs) 425 Cabbage 1950 Jaggery (گڑ) 6650 Mash Pulse(local) 2625 Ginger (Thai) 24250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11625 Cucumber (Kheera) 7430 Green Chilli 3150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1750 Lemon (Desi) 15500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Sweet Musk Melon 4900 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3100 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 5500 Potato Store 5100 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 9500 Tomato 3700 Spinach 850 Brinjal 1500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 9500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2700 Tinda 900 Cauliflower 2500 Peas 7250 Turnip 1700 Radish 1150 Carrot 2500 Apple (Ammre) 5350 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 6250 Kinnow (100Pcs) 850 Cabbage 1350 Ginger (Thai) 22000 Garlic (Local) 5250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1400 Melon 3000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Strawberry 11750 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Lemon (China) 11000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 ¡ SadiqAbad Wheat 3038 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 3400 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Black 6000 Gram Pulse 6000 Moong Pulse 12600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11000 Masoor Whole(local) 9000 Millet 2900 RapeSeed (Torya) 5738 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17500 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14000 Rice Basmati (385) 7000 Mash Pulse(local) 11000 Gram White(Importedl) 9500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 10000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 ¡ Mamukangan Potato Fresh 5750 Onion 2500 Garlic (China) 10500 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 1500 Cauliflower 1700 Peas 5500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 8250 Apple (Ammre) 6250 Banana(DOZENS) 65 Guava 2750 Cabbage 1300 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1500 Lemon (China) 5750 ¡ Shorkot Potato Fresh 5000 Onion 2175 Garlic (China) 11000 Ginger(China) 22950 Tomato 3000 Spinach 1150 Brinjal 1900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7950 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 8125 Cauliflower 2450 Apple (Golden) 7500 Banana(DOZENS) 68 Guava 4000 Cabbage 1375 Cucumber (Kheera) 1525 Melon 5000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Green Chilli 2500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1775 ¡ Fortabas Rice Basmati Super (New) 10500 Gram Pulse 5250 Moong 10750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11500 Potato Store 5750 Onion 2600 Garlic (China) 11500 Ginger(China) 25500 Tomato 2250 Spinach 700 Brinjal 2250 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 15300 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3250 Apple (Golden) 11500 Banana(DOZENS) 63 Guava 3750 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11500 Rice Basmati (385) 6500 Cabbage 2250 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11100 Cucumber (Kheera) 1250 Melon 25000 Watermelon 2750 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 11500 Green Chilli 4500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2600 ¡ Jauharabad Wheat 3050 Rice (IRRI) 4250 Paddy Basmati 5500 Sugar 5100 Gram White(local) 7600 Gram Black 4450 Gram Pulse 6300 Moong 9875 Moong Pulse 12250 Mash 10250 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11750 Masoor Whole(local) 11250 Maize 2625 Millet 2500 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 5875 Potato Fresh 4800 Onion 2700 Garlic (China) 9100 Tomato 3400 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1300 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 7300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 3100 Tinda 1100 Pumpkin 1800 Cauliflower 1800 Apple (Golden) 7300 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4100 Banola Cake 3579 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Cabbage 900 Jaggery (گڑ) 6750 Mash Pulse(local) 10750 Gram White(Importedl) 9750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 8500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 9800 Cucumber (Kheera) 1300 Melon 4500 Green Chilli 5000 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1300 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6700 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2000 FUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Tissue Culture Propagation of Apple Rootstocks

Tissue Culture Propagation of Apple Rootstocks

Plant tissue culture is a relatively new propagation technique started about 50 years ago. It has become a major propagation tool for many plant species, especially for fruit tree rootstocks: apple, pear, cherry, peach, almond, etc. In Europe, the majority of peach and cherry rootstocks are propagated through tissue culture. About 15 to 20 million peach rootstocks are propagated by tissue culture annually. More and more pear, cherry, peach, almond, walnut, and pistachio rootstocks have been propagated by tissue culture in the United States. Even many fruit or nut crops are directly propagated by tissue culture, such as berry crops and hazelnut.

Tissue culture propagation has several advantages:

Can provide pathogen-free plants.

Can provide plants with better root systems and uniformity compared to plants propagated from conventional methods.

Can significantly improve the rooting ability for most rootstocks.

Can be used to rapidly propagate new selections or cultivars from breeding programs for use in experimental trials and for large-scale production of rootstocks for commercial production.

Can offer year-round propagation for rootstocks without many seasonal restrictions.

Tissue culture has played an important role in apple rootstock propagation. During the last few decades, apple tissue culture propagation has been used in many countries, especially on new rootstock development. Rooting ability improvement through tissue culture propagation has been widely used for establishing apple rootstock stool beds for getting high-quality (more roots per shoot) and more productive (more shoots per foot) beds. However, high cost of apple tissue culture was the limiting factor for the extended application of this technology on apple rootstock propagation because most apple rootstocks can be propagated by stool beds or layer beds with much lower cost.

Some of the apple rootstocks with excellent horticultural characteristics are difficult to propagate with conventional methods, that is, SH series apple rootstocks in China. These rootstocks have been propagated by tissue culture for years because they perform poorly in stool beds. Geneva® 41 is another example in the United States. Geneva® 41 may be a good rootstock for replant sites, size control, and cold hardiness, but it is hard to propagate by conventional methods, so tissue culture propagation has been used.

High cost is the major factor limiting the use of tissue culture application on apples. Recently, commercial labs have significantly improved their techniques and reduced the cost of tissue culture propagation, so it is similar to the layer bed production. Tissue culture propagation will play a more important role in rapidly propagating new rootstocks for growers' trials or commercial production. Courtesy eXtension

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