Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 31 Jan, 2015: Gujrat Rice Basmati Super (New) 8250 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6200 Gram Black 5600 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong 10800 Moong Pulse 12000 Mash 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 12600 Masoor Pulse(local) 14800 Millet 3200 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 12000 Ginger(China) 11000 Tomato 4000 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 2600 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 25000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 8200 Cauliflower 1850 Peas 3400 Turnip 950 Radish 1150 Carrot 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11700 Apple (Golden) 7200 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 6400 Kinnow (100Pcs) 410 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16200 Musambi(100Pcs) 92 Cabbage 2200 Jaggery (گڑ) 7200 Mash Pulse(local) 14600 Gram White(Importedl) 7800 Ginger (Thai) 10500 Cucumber (Kheera) 4500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 6000 ¡ ArifWala Paddy Basmati 3813 Potato Fresh 1500 Onion 1500 Garlic (China) 14000 Ginger(China) 11500 Tomato 4750 Brinjal 3400 Cauliflower 2750 Peas 3400 Turnip 1350 Radish 900 Carrot 1700 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12500 Apple (Golden) 8500 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 3250 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 19000 Banola Cake 3259 Cabbage 2100 Cucumber (Kheera) 6250 Green Chilli 5500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6250 Lemon (China) 5250 ¡ Mailsi Sugar 5198 Potato Fresh 1575 Onion 933 Garlic (China) 11550 Tomato 3500 Spinach 500 Brinjal 2830 Cauliflower 1488 Peas 2950 Turnip 1225 Radish 1088 Carrot 1288 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10400 Banana(DOZENS) 36 Guava 2488 Kinnow (100Pcs) 555 Cabbage 1488 Ginger (Thai) 10170 Cucumber (Kheera) 4538 Green Chilli 5538 Lemon (China) 5608 ¡ LalaMusa Wheat 3300 Rice Basmati Super (New) 7600 Sugar 5200 Gram White(local) 6000 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong 14000 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 11500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13400 Maize 2200 Millet 2500 Potato Fresh 2000 Potato Store 1650 Onion 1850 Garlic (China) 12650 Tomato 4200 Spinach 1500 Brinjal 3200 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20000 Cauliflower 2550 Peas 3450 Turnip 1700 Radish 1100 Carrot 2550 Apple (Golden) 7000 Banana(DOZENS) 55 Guava 5000 Orange(100Pcs) 360 Kinnow (100Pcs) 350 Banola 2800 Banola Cake 2950 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 10000 Musambi(100Pcs) 745 Cabbage 2390 Jaggery (گڑ) 6400 Gram White(Importedl) 7500 Ginger (Thai) 12750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10700 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Cucumber (Kheera) 4050 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12000 Lemon (Other) 4000 Green Chilli 6500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 6000 Gram Flour (بیسن) 7000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 5750 ¡ Gojra Potato Fresh 1553 Onion 1510 Garlic (China) 11662 Tomato 4025 Spinach 620 Cauliflower 1695 Peas 3358 Turnip 1105 Radish 1105 Carrot 1553 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11657 Apple (Golden) 6495 Banana(DOZENS) 49 Guava 2458 Kinnow (100Pcs) 460 Cabbage 2458 Ginger (Thai) 9863 Green Chilli 4923 Lemon (China) 3360 ¡ Jhelum Potato Fresh 1600 Onion 1600 Garlic (China) 13000 Tomato 4500 Spinach 450 Brinjal 3250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 12750 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 2750 Turnip 1350 Radish 500 Carrot 1750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 10500 Apple (Golden) 6750 Banana(DOZENS) 50 Guava 4500 Orange(100Pcs) 610 Kinnow (100Pcs) 430 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Musambi(100Pcs) 715 Cabbage 1850 Cucumber (Kheera) 3550 Green Chilli 5250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5500 Lemon (China) 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 4250 ¡ RajanPur Potato Fresh 1200 Onion 1100 Tomato 3000 Brinjal 1800 Cauliflower 1500 Peas 3800 Turnip 1300 Radish 500 Carrot 1500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11000 Apple (Golden) 5950 Guava 4650 Cabbage 1500 Green Chilli 4500 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7000 ¡ ChackJhumra Rice Basmati Super (New) 7200 Sugar 4900 Gram White(local) 5450 Gram Black 5900 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong Pulse 13400 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 14100 Potato Fresh 1800 Onion 1800 Garlic (China) 13250 Tomato 5150 Spinach 1050 Brinjal 3100 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Cauliflower 1600 Peas 3100 Turnip 1000 Radish 550 Carrot 1250 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 11250 Apple (Golden) 6400 Banana(DOZENS) 34 Guava 4150 Kinnow (100Pcs) 330 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 5900 Pomegranate(Badana) 20250 Cabbage 2000 Mash Pulse(local) 14100 Ginger (Thai) 10250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6150 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 6150 Green Chilli 6150 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 7150 Lemon (China) 1400 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5900 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Tissue Culture Propagation of Apple Rootstocks

Tissue Culture Propagation of Apple Rootstocks

Plant tissue culture is a relatively new propagation technique started about 50 years ago. It has become a major propagation tool for many plant species, especially for fruit tree rootstocks: apple, pear, cherry, peach, almond, etc. In Europe, the majority of peach and cherry rootstocks are propagated through tissue culture. About 15 to 20 million peach rootstocks are propagated by tissue culture annually. More and more pear, cherry, peach, almond, walnut, and pistachio rootstocks have been propagated by tissue culture in the United States. Even many fruit or nut crops are directly propagated by tissue culture, such as berry crops and hazelnut.

Tissue culture propagation has several advantages:

Can provide pathogen-free plants.

Can provide plants with better root systems and uniformity compared to plants propagated from conventional methods.

Can significantly improve the rooting ability for most rootstocks.

Can be used to rapidly propagate new selections or cultivars from breeding programs for use in experimental trials and for large-scale production of rootstocks for commercial production.

Can offer year-round propagation for rootstocks without many seasonal restrictions.

Tissue culture has played an important role in apple rootstock propagation. During the last few decades, apple tissue culture propagation has been used in many countries, especially on new rootstock development. Rooting ability improvement through tissue culture propagation has been widely used for establishing apple rootstock stool beds for getting high-quality (more roots per shoot) and more productive (more shoots per foot) beds. However, high cost of apple tissue culture was the limiting factor for the extended application of this technology on apple rootstock propagation because most apple rootstocks can be propagated by stool beds or layer beds with much lower cost.

Some of the apple rootstocks with excellent horticultural characteristics are difficult to propagate with conventional methods, that is, SH series apple rootstocks in China. These rootstocks have been propagated by tissue culture for years because they perform poorly in stool beds. Geneva® 41 is another example in the United States. Geneva® 41 may be a good rootstock for replant sites, size control, and cold hardiness, but it is hard to propagate by conventional methods, so tissue culture propagation has been used.

High cost is the major factor limiting the use of tissue culture application on apples. Recently, commercial labs have significantly improved their techniques and reduced the cost of tissue culture propagation, so it is similar to the layer bed production. Tissue culture propagation will play a more important role in rapidly propagating new rootstocks for growers' trials or commercial production. Courtesy eXtension

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