Avg. Prices Of Commodities in Rs/100Kg: 27, July 2014: Okara Wheat 3050 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11900 Rice (IRRI) 3650 Sugar 5450 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 5550 Gram Pulse 5700 Moong 13450 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 10750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13100 Maize 2138 Millet 2500 Sorghum 6250 Potato Fresh 6250 Potato Store 4450 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 10250 Tomato 3900 Spinach 900 Brinjal 900 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16750 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1250 Tinda 3400 Cauliflower 4250 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Banola Cake 3925 Green Fodder 340 Wheat Straw 663 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6150 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13250 Rice Basmati (385) 7250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5250 Cabbage 4750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Ginger (Thai) 20000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9450 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11450 Garlic (Local) 7750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 12250 Green Chilli 3400 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3800 Lemon (Desi) 8250 Peach Special 9250 Plum 14750 Mango Desi 3000 Apricot White 12750 Grapes Gola 10950 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1050 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1100 ¡ Rawalpindi Wheat 3125 Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 4250 Sugar 5570 Gram White(local) 6500 Gram Black 5400 Gram Pulse 6650 Moong 14500 Moong Pulse 16000 Mash 11750 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13750 Maize 2850 Millet 2650 Sorghum 4100 RapeSeed (Torya) 6625 Potato Store 6000 Onion 4000 Garlic (China) 9800 Ginger(China) 20100 Tomato 6650 Spinach 1900 Brinjal 2000 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 20500 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2500 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 3650 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5500 Peas 8900 Turnip 3000 Carrot 3700 Banana(DOZENS) 109 Grapes (Other) 7600 Mango(Chounsa) 6300 Mango(Desahri) 5000 Mango(Sindhri) 7400 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 15250 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6550 Cabbage 4800 Jaggery (گڑ) 7750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10500 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11500 Garlic (Local) 9800 Cucumber (Kheera) 4300 Melon 2400 Watermelon 2400 Mango (Malda) 4150 Lychee 15400 Dates (Aseel) 9500 Apple (Gatcha) 12800 Green Chilli 3700 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5100 Lemon (Desi) 10700 Peach 8700 Peach Special 13000 Plum 10000 Mango Desi 3700 Apricot White 10850 Grapes Gola 7600 Grapes Sundekhani 14150 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6350 Sweet Musk Melon 5000 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 3000 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2900 ¡ Multan Wheat 3338 Rice Basmati Super (New) 9750 Rice (IRRI) 3725 Sugar 5390 Gram Black 5175 Gram Pulse 5600 Moong 9125 Moong Pulse 11375 Mash 9125 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13875 Maize 2250 Millet 2551 RapeSeed (Torya) 6438 Potato Store 4800 Onion 3050 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 6000 Spinach 1000 Brinjal 700 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3500 Pumpkin 1700 Cauliflower 5750 Peas 15000 Carrot 4500 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 17000 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 4500 Green Fodder 275 Wheat Straw 788 Mango(Desahri) 4500 Mango(Sindhri) 3250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 11200 Rice Basmati (385) 6813 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 4950 Groundnut 6250 Cabbage 3950 Jaggery (گڑ) 5938 Gram White(Importedl) 6563 Ginger (Thai) 19000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9438 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12625 Garlic (Local) 6250 Cucumber (Kheera) 6000 Melon 3750 Green Chilli 3250 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Peach 7850 Plum 8900 Mango Desi 2200 Apricot White 10800 Pomegranate Desi 7000 Pear 3950 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5775 Sweet Musk Melon 3750 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1350 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ Bhalwal Potato Store 5750 Onion 4900 Garlic (China) 11750 Ginger(China) 23500 Tomato 6750 Spinach 3250 Brinjal 1900 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2900 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2350 Tinda 8750 Cauliflower 3900 Peas 14750 Banana(DOZENS) 85 Mango(Chounsa) 9750 Apple (Gatcha) 9750 Lemon (Other) 14750 Green Chilli 7900 Peach 11500 Plum 21500 Mango Desi 5750 Grapes Sundekhani 27500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4250 ¡ Sahiwal Wheat 3150 Rice Basmati Super (New) 11250 Rice (IRRI) 3900 Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 7600 Gram Black 5500 Gram Pulse 5750 Moong Pulse 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 12250 Masoor Pulse(local) 13250 Maize 2325 Millet 6350 Sorghum 2600 Potato Fresh 5850 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3175 Garlic (China) 9250 Tomato 4600 Spinach 1100 Brinjal 1125 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 17250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2300 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 3800 Pumpkin 1300 Cauliflower 5850 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13500 Apple (Ammre) 8350 Banana(DOZENS) 73 Guava 3600 Mango(Chounsa) 6475 Green Fodder 388 Wheat Straw 725 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6650 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13500 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5750 Gram White(Importedl) 9000 Masoor Whole (Imported) 9750 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11250 Cucumber (Kheera) 1500 Dates (Aseel) 14600 Apple (Gatcha) 10500 Green Chilli 3600 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5350 Lemon (Desi) 8400 Peach 7250 Peach Special 10500 Plum 13500 Mango Saharni 4850 Apricot White 10750 Grapes Gola 12850 Grapes Sundekhani 17000 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 5950 Sweet Musk Melon 4750 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 5400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2025 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Gujrat Sugar 5300 Gram White(local) 6050 Gram Black 5700 Gram Pulse 5400 Moong 14200 Moong Pulse 14750 Mash 13300 Masoor Whole(local) 10000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12250 Millet 3350 Potato Fresh 5750 Potato Store 4650 Onion 3400 Garlic (China) 10600 Ginger(China) 27000 Tomato 4650 Spinach 1800 Brinjal 1400 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 19650 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2400 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2000 Tinda 4250 Cauliflower 4000 Peas 11550 Turnip 3750 Radish 3600 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 12600 Banana(DOZENS) 92 Mango(Chounsa) 8150 Mango(Desahri) 6200 Mango(Sindhri) 9200 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12150 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 8250 Cabbage 5000 Jaggery (گڑ) 7350 Mash Pulse(local) 14800 Gram White(Importedl) 8800 Cucumber (Kheera) 3600 Dates (Aseel) 12550 Apple (Gatcha) 11650 Lemon (Other) 13500 Green Chilli 3800 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5000 Peach Special 10800 Plum 11650 Mango Desi 3150 Apricot White 12550 Grapes Gola 12600 Grapes Sundekhani 23100 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6200 Sweet Musk Melon 4550 Sweet Musk Melon (Shireen) 7200 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 4500 ¡ PakPattan Rice Basmati Super (New) 12000 Rice (IRRI) 4000 Gram White(local) 7000 Gram Pulse 5800 Moong Pulse 15000 Masoor Pulse(local) 12000 Potato Fresh 6500 Potato Store 5000 Onion 3600 Garlic (China) 9000 Tomato 4700 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1200 Tinda 3600 Cauliflower 3500 Mango(Chounsa) 6400 Mango(Desahri) 6000 Mango(Sindhri) 6000 Rice Basmati (385) 7400 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Garlic (Local) 6000 Cucumber (Kheera) 1800 Dates (Aseel) 13000 Apple (Gatcha) 13000 Green Chilli 3500 Lemon (China) 9000 Peach 13800 Plum 15500 Mango Desi 2600 Apricot White 13000 Pomegranate Desi 10400 Grapes Gola 8600 Grapes Sundekhani 17200 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6500 Sweet Musk Melon 4400 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1900 ¡ Mailsi Potato Store 4998 Onion 2798 Garlic (China) 9290 Tomato 6560 Spinach 713 Brinjal 1305 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1768 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1055 Tinda 2120 Cauliflower 5375 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 13935 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5550 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5760 Ginger (Thai) 19765 Watermelon 1140 Apple (Gatcha) 8975 Green Chilli 3275 Lemon (Desi) 12145 Peach Special 10588 Mango Desi 2500 Apricot White 10415 Pomegranate Desi 5500 Grapes Gola 11450 Grapes Sundekhani 17650 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1633 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1555 ¡ Chichawatni Rice Basmati Super (New) 11500 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5500 Gram White(local) 7500 Gram Black 6750 Gram Pulse 6250 Moong Pulse 15500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 14500 Potato Fresh 7500 Potato Store 4750 Onion 2900 Garlic (China) 10500 Tomato 3250 Spinach 900 Brinjal 1100 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2200 Tinda 4050 Pumpkin 1900 Cauliflower 5750 Apple Kala Kullu (Pahari) 14500 Apple (Golden) 6500 Banana(DOZENS) 75 Guava 3750 Pomegranate(Kandhari) 16500 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Mango(Desahri) 5750 Mango(Sindhri) 6250 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 13000 Rice Basmati (385) 7750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 6250 Cabbage 5250 Gram White(Importedl) 10250 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 12000 Garlic (Local) 6750 Cucumber (Kheera) 1600 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 7500 Dates (Aseel) 18000 Apple (Gatcha) 11500 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 5250 Lemon (Desi) 7500 Peach 10500 Plum 12750 Mango Saharni 4750 Apricot White 11000 Pomegranate Desi 6500 Grapes Gola 12500 Grapes Sundekhani 18100 Pear 6250 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6750 Sweet Musk Melon 5250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1900 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2100 ¡ Kamalia Wheat 3281 Paddy Basmati 4750 Maize 1950 Sorghum 6375 Potato Store 4750 Onion 3200 Garlic (China) 8500 Tomato 4100 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1200 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 1800 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1800 Tinda 3250 Cauliflower 4500 Banana(DOZENS) 60 Mango(Chounsa) 5750 Jaggery (گڑ) 5500 Ginger (Thai) 20500 Apple (Gatcha) 9000 Green Chilli 3750 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 3300 Lemon (Desi) 10500 Peach 10500 Plum 11000 Mango Desi 2750 Apricot White 9500 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 14000 Sweet Musk Melon 4500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1800 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 1800 ¡ Chakwal Wheat 2938 Rice (IRRI) 4100 Sugar 5050 Gram White(local) 6250 Gram Black 4650 Gram Pulse 6200 Moong 9250 Mash 2600 Mash Pulse(Imported) 11625 Maize 3150 Millet 2900 Sorghum 5250 RapeSeed (Torya) 7100 Potato Store 5550 Onion 3250 Garlic (China) 8100 Tomato 5750 Spinach 1350 Brinjal 1050 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 16250 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2650 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 1250 Banola 3750 Green Fodder 325 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 12250 Rice Basmati (385) 8500 Cabbage 2400 Jaggery (گڑ) 7650 Ginger (Thai) 18375 Cucumber (Kheera) 850 Melon 3250 Green Chilli 3050 Lemon (Desi) 8900 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6650 Sweet Musk Melon 3850 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1750 ¡ Mianwali Potato Fresh 5365 Onion 3765 Garlic (China) 10925 Tomato 6465 Spinach 2090 Brinjal 1890 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2390 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2090 Banana(DOZENS) 80 Mango(Chounsa) 6965 Mango(Desahri) 4890 Mango(Sindhri) 7465 Green Chilli 4890 Lemon (Desi) 11700 Peach 5890 Peach Special 8890 Plum 11925 Mango Desi 2715 Apricot White 15400 Pear 7890 Sweet Musk Melon 5890 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 2390 ¡ SadiqAbad Rice Basmati Super (New) 12500 Rice (IRRI) 3600 Sugar 5400 Gram White(local) 7350 Gram Black 6500 Gram Pulse 6050 Moong Pulse 15000 Mash 13500 Mash Pulse(Imported) 13600 Masoor Whole(local) 10700 Masoor Pulse(local) 11200 Millet 3000 Potato Store 4230 Onion 2625 Garlic (China) 9450 Ginger(China) 20790 Tomato 3825 Spinach 935 Brinjal 935 Red Chilli Whole (Dry) 24000 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2465 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1955 Tinda 2635 Pumpkin 1445 Cauliflower 4888 Apple (Golden) 9350 Banana(DOZENS) 53 Mango(Chounsa) 4930 Rice Basmati Super (Old) 14500 Rice Basmati (385) 7200 Cabbage 4845 Jaggery (گڑ) 6500 Mash Pulse(local) 13000 Gram White(Importedl) 8750 Masoor Whole (Imported) 10000 Masoor Pulse (Imported) 11000 Melon 2635 Watermelon 2125 Green Chilli 3910 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 4165 Lemon (Desi) 7863 Peach 5737 Peach Special 12962 Mango Desi 3610 Apricot Yellow 10625 Grapes Gola 10284 Grapes Sundekhani 15510 Gram Flour (بیسن) 6250 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 935 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2125 ¡ Summandri Potato Store 4750 Onion 3000 Tomato 6200 Spinach 1300 Brinjal 700 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2000 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 2800 Tinda 3350 Pumpkin 1000 Cauliflower 2650 Peas 12500 Turnip 2300 Banana(DOZENS) 95 Mango(Chounsa) 6250 Mango(Desahri) 4750 Mango(Anwer Ratol) 5200 Cabbage 5000 Garlic (Local) 6850 Cucumber (Kheera) 2600 Melon 3000 Apple Kala Kullu (Madani) 12500 Green Chilli 3100 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1900 Mango Desi 2300 Apricot White 9750 Grapes Gola 9000 Grapes Sundekhani 16500 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Zucchini (گھیا توری) 2200 ¡ TALAGANG Potato Store 5100 Onion 3000 Garlic (China) 8500 Ginger(China) 17400 Tomato 4400 Spinach 1200 Brinjal 1150 Lady Finger/Okra (بھنڈی توری) 2100 Bitter Gourd (کریلا) 1700 Tinda 2000 Apple (Golden) 12400 Mango(Sindhri) 6500 Cucumber (Kheera) 900 Melon 3700 Watermelon 1200 Green Chilli 2900 Capsicum (شملہ مرچ) 1150 Lemon (Desi) 9100 Peach 6500 Plum 11300 Apricot White 10800 Bottle Gourd (کدو) 1700 Pls Refresh for Latest Prices UpdateFUll VIEW CLICK HERE Note these are guidelines only… Modern Agriculture and its impact on our Daily Life: SEMINAR

Modern Agriculture and its impact on our Daily Life: SEMINAR

karachi-uniI.        Seminar Information:

a)   Seminar Description:

This title has been techniques in our living places. By this informative seminar we are chosen by analyzing the scenario of low production of agricultural products and describing the modern agricultural techniques well as in this informative seminar we also describe the application and role of pesticidesin  modern agricultural trying to enhance the knowledge about the modern agriculture and its Impact in Our Daily Life.

“AGRICULTURE is a universe with in itself, So come and explore it”.

b)   Time of seminar: 9:OO am To 3:OO pm

c)    Date for seminar: 26 October 2013

d)   Seminar venue: Arts Auditorium University of Karachi

 

II.        Objective of Seminar:

a)    This seminar will cover core issues like factors responsible for low production, implementation, Role of pesticides, fertilizersand importance of modern techniques to eliminate the local problems mainly in, livestock, crop production and agricultural mechanization, interdependence between agricultural sciences and the existence of this universe, and the influence of agriculture on the modern world.

 

III.        Activities:

a)   Will provide a participation card, seminar file containing a pen, note pad and brochures having information.

b)   Interactive sessions using video clips, real time discussions etc.

c)    Informative technical and lead presentations by the respective experts.

d)   Panel discussion of exporters, speakers, researchers.

e)   Hi-tea

f)     Lunch

g)   Certificate Distribution.

Objectives:

Ø To brief the importancemodern agriculture and implementation about the Modern techniques of Agriculture to the students.

Ø Modern agriculture brings enormous economic and social benefits to consumers including: Improved quality of daily life and living standards as food and nutrition costs decline.

Ø Modern agriculture increases global political stability by making more food and nutrition available, improving its quality and making it accessible to more people.

Ø To expose the difficulties faced by Pakistan in result low productive, agricultural backwardness, and overcoming them with the implementations of modern agriculture.

Ø Modern techniques used to enhance the productivity and implementations mainly in Food and Nutrition, Crop production & Livestock section and Agricultural Mechanization.

Ø Elaborate the acknowledgement that Agriculture is the basis of everything in this universe in a modern perspective.

Ø Introduction to modern techniques, their importance and implementations in agricultural mechanization.

Ø This comprehensive will examine the environmental impact of pesticides, fertilizers and food security, availability made by agriculture in the 21st Century.

Ø Giving students vision to the core of subject and inculcating them the importance of modern agriculture in daily life.

Ø Provide opportunities to make a firm interaction between the students and representatives of the different industries, organizations, farmersandcompanies to initiate the critical role of pesticides, fertilizersand impact of modern agriculturein daily life.

 

Impact of Modern Agriculture on Our Daily Life

 

During the latter half of the twentieth century, what is known today as modern agriculture was very successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world's population. Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically, the price of food declined, the rate of increase in crop yields generally kept pace with population growth, and the number of people who consistently go hungry was slightly reduced. This boost in food production has been due mainly to scientific advances and new technologies, including the development of new crop varieties, the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the construction of large irrigation systems.

There is really little mystery about why agriculture is important it is the physical foundation of human energy, health, and physical wellbeingall key components of every important human activity. To the degree these components are missing, the human existence is defined primarily by the effort necessary to provide them. Making them more widely available at lower costs increases the capacity of any population to invest in more productive work, education, economic development and cultural activities.

The basic facts are clear:

More people the world over eat more and better because of modern agriculture. Increased production continues to enable steadily improving diets, reflecting increased availability of all foods, dietary diversity and access to high-protein food products;

The additional food modern systems provide has enabled hundreds of millions of people to realize more of their potential and better lives—thus enhancing the achievements of all, from students to retirees. It increases workforce productivity and generally supports human development and growth;

The current hunger and malnutrition that extends to some one billion people reflects poor policies, low productivity and low incomes. Failure to continue to apply new technologies to advance productivity on the farm and across the food system simply worsens every aspect of these problems, especially those forced on individuals and families who live in poverty. To a very large extent, current food insecurity problems reflect bad policies, poor infrastructure and low economic productivity in the nations where these conditions occur, rather than a physical lack of food or food production capacity.

Increased agricultural production is most often brought about by the introduction of improved crop varieties and by creating an optimal environment such that the plants and animals can develop to their full potential. Planting, tending and harvesting a crop requires both a significant amount of power and a suitable range of tools and equipment. Mechanization of farming has allowed an increase to the area that can be planted and has contributed towards increased yields, mainly due to the precision with which the crop husbandry tasks can be accomplished. In fact, most farmers in developing countries experience a greater annual expenditure on farm power inputs than on fertilizer, seeds or agrochemicals.

Crop production systems have evolved rapidly over the past century and have resulted in significantly increased yields. Unfortunately, on some occasions the production systems have created undesirable environmental side-effects amongst which soil degradation and erosion, pollution from chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals and a loss of bio-diversity are just a few of the examples that have been highlighted over recent years. Furthermore, not only were some crop production systems found to be unsustainable in an environmental sense, in some locations neither were they sustainable in an economic sense. Of equal concern was the observation that in some cases it was only the work undertaken by men that was mechanized. The tasks traditionally performed by women remained unchanged although the work demanded of them increased as the area planted and the yields increased.

It is against this background that the work in agricultural mechanization has focused on the following aspects:

all types of farm power (human, animal and mechanical) including the related social, economic and environmental dimensions;

standards for farm tools, machinery and equipment, together with codes of conduct for their safe use (implemented in close collaboration with the plant production and protection division);

technical, policy and strategy issues concerning mechanization;

alternative crop establishment technologies such as conservation agriculture.

The significant hunger and malnutrition that persist in many parts of the world would have been far worse had agricultural systems not grown and developed as they did;

 

The physical pressures on the environment that have become increasingly prominent public concerns have been greatly ameliorated by modern agriculture, which has reduced:

The need to expand land area, and thereby reduced pressure to cultivate fragile lands and forested areas. Modern agriculture includes successful new technologies, including biotechnology to enable both higher yields and reduced environmental impacts. These reduce the land, fertilizer and pesticide use per unit of output;

Pressure on grassland, forestland and cropland thus increasing wildlife habitat as a result;

 

 

While the unintended negative environmental consequences of modern agriculture are frequently noted, little mention is ever made of the negative environmental impacts that frequently arise from smallholder farming, especially from slash and burn‖ primitive systems in wide use in developing countries where vertical rows are often planted up steep hillsides, resulting in some of the world’s heaviest soil erosion, badly polluted watercourses and many other problems of both efficiency and sustainability. The lack of sustainability of these practices can be seen in the fact that they typically lead to abandonment of successive plots year after year;

 

Processing technology and handling advancements contribute enormously to improved food safety through pathogen reductions and large reductions in post-harvest losses that

 

Further increase food supplies. Pasteurization of milk, canning, freezing, and other processing technologies significantly reduce health risks associated with food. Threats from bacteria and other contaminants are still important, but the risks of illness and death are far less than in the past, a fact that is widely underappreciated;

Modern agriculture brings enormous economic and social benefits to consumers including:

improved quality of life and living standards as food costs decline. This effectively raises consumer incomes since it leaves greater purchasing power for other consumer goods, for education, health care, leisure, etc., a trend that has been a major driver of economic growth in developed countries, and in some developing countries, as well. Today, consumers in the United States spend less than 10% of their disposable income for food while many in the developing world spend from half or more of their income on food, a huge drag on quality of life. It is now widely recognized that the development of modern food system has been a major factor in improving the standard of living enjoyed in much of the world today;

When consumers spend the major share of their income and virtually all of their daily efforts simply to find food, little money or time is left for human investments. This  survival treadmill‖ characterizes the lives of most smallholder farmers, especially in developing countries;

Modern agriculture increases global political stability by making more food available, improving its quality and making it accessible to more people.

Without the advances that characterize modern agriculture, the world arguably would be a much more dangerous and volatile place because more people would be food insecure as the food price spikes of mid-2008 clearly illustrated.

Development of a robust, rules-based trading system has been extremely important in improving food distribution and increasing accessibility in food-deficit areas.

The major threat to modern agricultural development comes not from lack of interest and willingness to invest by farmers, but from increasingly vocal opposition from a constellation of activists who have succeeded in shifting agricultural policies in several areas.

 

In modern agricultural systems farmers believe they have much more central roles and are eager to apply technology and information to control most components of the system, a very different view from that of traditional farmers. In contrast to the isolation inherent in traditional arrangements, modern agriculture tends to see its success as dependent on linkages access to resources, technology, management, investment, markets and supportive government policies.

As a result, much of the success of modern systems depends on the development and maintenance of soil fertility through the specific provision of nutrients when they are depleted; of machine power and technology to create soil conditions necessary to promote plant growth with minimal disturbance and minimal soil loss; of the use of improved genetics for crops and livestock to enhance yields, quality and reliability; and, on modern genetic and other techniques to protect plants and livestock from losses to competing plants, diseases, drought insects and other threats.

This success also depends on access to efficient, effective irrigation to supplement rainfall in many climates; on advanced harvesting, handling and storage equipment and techniques to prevent losses and to market commodities efficiently. It depends, in turn, on both public and private investment to provide access to technology, equipment, information and physical facilities throughout the production-marketing system. And, it depends on well supported commercial and financial systems and broad public policies that support effective commercial markets at all levels that generate economic returns throughout the system.

Most developed nations traditionally invested heavily over time in their agricultural systems to insure access to the food products they need as they grow and expand. This involved a highly complex, although often implied ―social contract.‖ Society was expected to support for various aspects of a competitive, commercial agricultural sector that assured abundant supplies of healthful food and fiber products, in response to consumer demands expressed through efficient markets. The system also was expected to generate private investment sufficient to maintain future growth.

The government commitment also frequently included support in the form of public investment in critical infrastructure, market information and regulation, basic research and development, training and education in a number of key areas—as is done for most other important economic sectors.

The primary benefit from this investment has been agriculture’s strong productivity growth—passed on through the enhancement of national economic wellbeing in the form of more abundant food available at declining shares of disposable income. In addition, the agricultural sector was expected to share its productivity with the world, especially developing countries through both competitively priced food exports and through aid programs.

Despite this long standing arrangement throughout most developed countries, agriculture today frequently finds itself in the crosshairs of critics who are keen to impose their own, often utopian views on how agriculture should be organized.9 These are frequently based on very different economic and social objectives than those typically assumed in the original contract as it evolved over the years. Some would go so far as to replace the modern system with small organic homesteads and urban gardens in an effort to return agriculture to some  traditional‖ state or, at least, to constrain additional growth or use of non-traditional technologies.

Many such visions are not just aspirations, but are predicated upon a wide array of charges against the modern sector made by activists in support of a broad range of causes. These are often joined by a growing group of writers, columnists, journalists and others (including some public officials) who share their views.

This barrage of criticism frequently reflects real concerns about the environment, food safety and other perceived threats, but that is not always the case, it must be said. Many others reflect little more than vague promises of greater pleasure from a new  food culture‖ and of a quieter, factory free, pollutant free system with enhanced animal care. Some are based merely on the assertion of ―tensions‖ between modern agriculture and nature.

Utopian views and efforts to organize and live in accordance with them are not new, of course history is replete with examples. What is new is the willingness and capacity of some activists to attack the modern system for its success, its growth and expansion and its prosperity, and then to argue that utopian approaches can better achieve even better, although amorphous goals based mainly on separate criteria they use to define those objectives.

Conclusion

Modern agriculture must seek to feed the world's growing population with little or no cost to the Environment. Modern agriculture is capable of producing greater yields than ever before, but intensification of agriculture does come at a price. This comprehensive volume examines the environmental impact made by agriculture in the 21st Century, looking forward to the future with the lessons of the past. Key chapters include impacts of agriculture upon soil quality, greenhouse gas budgets, water-borne pathogens, surface water chemistry, groundwater, agricultural pesticides and the environment, balancing the environmental consequences of agriculture with the needs for food security and positive and negative aspects of agricultural production of biofuels. To concentrate basically on modern techniques their importance and implementations in agriculture.

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